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Table 3 Anti-HCV positivity in relation to HCV risk factors in HIV-positive and HIV- negative individuals at Hawassa HIV testing centers, 2008

From: Prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C among individuals presenting to HIV testing centers, Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia

Characteristics HIV-positive HIV-negative
  N o (%) tested N o (%) positive for anti-HCV Crude odds ratio (95% CI) N o (%) tested N o (%) positive for anti-HCV Crude odds ratio (95% CI)
Hospital admission       
   No 300(75.0) 35(11.7) 1 342 (85.5) 21(6.1) 1
   Yes 100(25.0) 7(7.0) 0.57(0.25-1.33) 58 (14.5) 3(5.2) .83(0.24-2.89)
Blood transfusion       
   No 388(97.0) 41(10.6) 1 398(99.5) 24(6.0)  
   Yes 12(3.0) 1(8.3) 0.77(0.10-6.11) 2(0.5) 0 -
Unsafe injection       
   No 375(93.8) 40(10.7) 1 384(96.0) 24(6.2)  
   Yes 25(6.2) 2(8.0) 0.73(0.17-3.20) 16(4.0) 0 -
Multiple sexual partners *       
   No 315(78.8) 31(9.8) 1 344(86.0) 18(5.2) 1
   Yes 85(21.2) 11(12.9) 1.3(0.65-2.84) 56(14.0) 6(10.7) 2.1(0.82-5.74)
Sexual transmitted infections **       
   No 282(70.5) 26(9.2) 1 380(95.0) 23(6.1) 1
   Yes 118(29.5) 16(13.6) 1.54(0.80-3.0) 20(5.0) 1(5.0) 0.82(0.11-6.38)
Tooth extraction       
   No 278(69.5) 27(9.7) 1 286(71.5) 18(6.3) 1
   Yes 122(30.5) 15(12.3) 1.30(0.67-2.55) 114(28.5) 6(5.3) 0.83(0.32-2.14)
Catheterization       
   No 393(98.2) 41(10.4) 1 399(99.8) 24(6.0) -
   Yes 7(1.8) 1(14.3) 1.43(0.17-12.18) 1(0.2) 0  
Scarification       
   No 373(93.2) 39(10.5) 1 367(91.8) 23(6.3) 1
   Yes 27(6.8) 3(11.1) 1.07(0.31-3.72) 33(8.2) 1(3.0) 0.47(0.06-3.58)
Abortion       
   No 193(77.5) 18(9.3) 1 195(93.3) 11(5.6) 1
   Yes 56(22.5) 7(12.5) 1.39(0.55-3.51) 14(6.7) 1(7.1) 1.29(0.15-10.8)
Ear piercing       
   No 240(60.0) 22(9.2) 1 292(73.0) 16(5.5) 1
   Yes 160(40.0) 20(12.5) 1.42(0.74-2.69) 108(27.0) 8(7.4) 1.38(0.57-3.32)
Surgery ***       
   No 376(94.0) 40(10.6) 1 388(97.0) 24(6.2)  
   Yes 24(6.0) 2(8.3) 0.76(0.17-3.37) 12(3.0) 0 -
Blood letting       
   No 390(97.5) 41(10.5) 1 398(99.5) 24(6.0)  
   Yes 10(2.5) 1(10.0) 0.95(0.12-7.66) 2(0.5) 0 -
Tattooing       
   No 365(91.2) 38(10.4) 1 376(94.0) 23(6.1) 1
   Yes 35(8.8) 4(11.4) 1.11(0.37-3.32) 24(6.0) 1(4.2) 0.67(0.09-5.16)
History of liver disease ****       
   No 373(93.2) 41(11) 1 387(96.8) 23(5.9) 1
   Yes 27(6.8) 1(3.7) 0.31(0.04-2.36) 13(3.2) 1(7.7) 1.32(0.16-10.6)
Contact with a person having liver disease       
   No 372(93.0) 39(10.5) 1 379(94.8) 24(6.3)  
   Yes 28(7.0) 3(10.7) 1.03(0.30-3.55) 21(5.2) 0 -
  1. * having more than one sexual partner; ** have ever been diagnosed for sexual transmitted infections (excluding HIV); *** ever had minor or major surgical operation; **** have ever been diagnosed for liver disease