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Table 4 Time domain indices and behaviour scores in the different groups based on the last ECG recording

From: Time and frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability in cattle affected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Groupa Heart rate [bpm]
Median (range)
Deviation from mean interval [%]
Median (range)
VVTI
Median (range)
Behaviour scores: N animalsb
Female control 66 (45-109)
N = 26
28.8% (7.8-84.7%)
N = 25
10.8 (1.9-24.3)
N = 25
0: 17 (65%)
1: 7 (27%)
2: 2 (8%)
Female negative 61 (40-154)
N = 36
28.5% (2.9-91.7%)
N = 35
8.9 (2.2-33.5)
N = 35
0: 20 (59%)
1: 8 (23%)
2: 6 (18%)
Female positive 62 (32-89)
N = 22
29.6% (6.7-140.9%)
N = 21
9.1 (1.9-28.5)
N = 21
0: 5 (23%)
1: 6 (27%)
2: 11 (50%)
Male control 66 (34-132)
N = 50
29.8% (10.5-127.2%)
N = 48
9.3 (2.5-22.6)
N = 48
0: 38 (76%)
1: 11 (22%)
2: 1 (2%)
Male negative 67 (45-142)
N = 288
24.8% (6.9-138.8%)
N = 277
11.2 (1.5-28.5)
N = 277
0: 208 (72%)
1: 57 (20%)
2: 22 (8%)
Male positive 65 (51-108)
N = 28
28.1% (7.4-80.1%)
N = 27
11.1 (3.2-20.3)
N = 27
0: 12 (43%)
1: 4 (14%)
2: 12 (43%)
P -value c ns (0.09) ns (0.1) ns (0.1) Female groups: < 0.0001*
Male groups: 0.003*
  1. a Negative: cattle inoculated with tissue/body fluids from BSE/scrapie-challenged or naturally infected BSE cases as well as reported BSE suspects that were negative for BSE by postmortem tests.
  2. Positive: challenged or naturally infected BSE suspects that were positive for BSE by postmortem tests.
  3. b The behaviour score was not assessed in all animals with recorded ECGs.
  4. c Comparison of the heart time domain indices was done by Kruskal-Wallis test (ns = not significant), comparison of the behaviour scores within female and male cattle (score 0 versus scores 1 and 2) was done by Chi-square test.
  5. * Significant differences between BSE-positive cattle and controls as well as BSE-positive and BSE-negative cattle after employing Bonferroni's correction (P < 0.03).