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Table 6 Logistic regression models of determinants of sexual violence against young women in the past 12 months: Rural Nepal, 2009

From: The prevalence and determinants of sexual violence against young married women by husbands in rural Nepal

Variables Model 1 Model 2
Single level Random effects
Odds Ratio   SE Odds Ratio   SE
Woman and household level variables       
Age at time of survey 0.900 *** 0.028 0.902 *** 0.028
Woman has no children 2.000 ** 0.440 1.994 ** 0.438
No knowledge of sex prior to marriage 0.712 * 0.111 0.744 + 0.115
Frequent media exposure 0.737 + 0.130 0.728 + 0.126
Woman’s autonomy (ref: low)       
Medium 0.838   0.150 0.827   0.147
High 0.459 *** 0.098 0.403 *** 0.088
Caste/Ethnicity (ref: Brahmin/Chhetri)       
Tamang 0.803   0.221 0.642 ** 0.171
Tharu 1.439   0.418 1.216   0.332
Muslim 1.764 + 0.560 3.930 *** 1.532
Never watched a pornographic film 0.507 ** 0.109 0.496 ** 0.106
Contact with maternal family (ref: at least weekly)       
Once a month 0.703 * 0.124 0.717   0.126
Rare/never 1.343   0.257 1.363   0.259
Age of woman at marriage (ref: under 15)       
15–17 1.086   0.306 -   -
18+ 1.046   0.316 -   -
Woman’s education (ref: illiterate)       
Literate up to grade 8 1.381   0.242 -   -
Secondary 1.347   0.387 -   -
Above Secondary 1.232   0.627 -   -
Woman’s occupation (ref: none)       
Agriculture/poultry/daily wage 1.331   0.28 -   -
Other employment 0.745   0.297 -   -
Member of community group/groups 0.924   0.166 -   -
HH asset index (ref: poorest)       
Poor 1.284   0.308 -   -
Middle 1.1   0.274 -   -
Rich 1.442   0.381 -   -
Richest 1.365   0.406 -   -
Husband level variables       
Age of husband (ref: 15–24)       
25–34 1.308   0.214 1.341   0.219
35 and above 3.282 ** 1.277 3.304 *** 1.286
Husband’s education (ref: illiterate)       
Literate up to grade 8 0.712   0.149 0.703 ** 0.147
Secondary 0.402 *** 0.104 0.395 *** 0.101
Above Secondary 0.420 ** 0.142 0.435 * 0.144
Husband’s occupation (ref: unemployed)       
Agriculture 0.604   0.198 0.58   0.189
Daily wage labour 0.655   0.225 0.591   0.202
Service 0.738   0.248 0.662   0.222
Foreign employment 0.25 *** 0.088 0.233 *** 0.082
Business 0.663   0.261 0.631   0.248
Husband’s alcohol consumption (ref: often)       
Sometimes 0.645 * 0.140 0.609 * 0.133
Never/rarely 0.435 *** 0.102 0.428 *** 0.101
Husband has casual partners 2.901 *** 0.678 2.822 *** 0.659
Inter-Spousal communication (ref: low)       
Medium 0.446 * 0.173 0.439 * 0.169
High 0.2 *** 0.069 0.201 *** 0.068
Community level variables       
% of women with high autonomy -   - 0.632 ** 0.113
% of women with education -   - 1.01   0.014
% of men with education -   - 0.969   0.019
  1. + p ≤ 0.10; *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01; ***p ≤ 0.001.