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Table 1 Spices used in the present study and evidence of their activities

From: Antibacterial and antibiotic-potentiation activities of the methanol extract of some cameroonian spices against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes

Spice samples (Family) Herbarium Voucher numbera Traditional Treatment Part used Bioactive (or potentially active) compoundsband screened activitycfor crude plant extract
Aframomum citratum (Pereira) K. Schum. (Zingiberaceae) 37 736/HNC Malaria, aphrodisiac, cancer [4, 6] Fruits. leaves. seeds Antimicrobial: Ethylacetate extract of fruits on Ec. Pa. Sa[7]
     Cytotoxicity of fruits crude methanol extract [weak activity on leukemia CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 cells, and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines] [4]
Aframomum melegueta (Roscoe) K. Schum. (Zingiberaceae) 39 065/HNC Malaria, dysentery, carminative, dysmenorrheal, fertility, rubella, leprosy, cancer [6, 8] Fruits, leaves Antimicrobial : Aqueous and ethanol extract of leaves on Fo. An[9] Methanol extract of fruits (Q) on Sa. Bs. Ec. Pa. Ca[8]
     Cytotoxicity of fruits crude methanol extract [weak activity on leukemia CCRF-CEM and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines and significant activity on CEM/ADR5000 cells with IC50 value of 7.08 μg/ml] [4]
Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Linn) Cor. (Lauraceae) 22 309/SRFC Cancer [4] Fruits, leaves. bark Antimicrobial : Cd, Cm, Lt, Fp[10, 11]
     Cytotoxicity of leaves crude methanol extract [weak activity on leukemia CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 cells, and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines] [4]
Dorstenia psilurus Welwitch (Moraceae) 44 839/HNC Snake bite, rheumatism, head and stomach ache, hypertension, cancer [4, 12, 13]. Leaves, roots Cytotoxicity of roots crude methanol extract [Significant activity with IC50 values of 7.18; 7.79 and 9.17 μg/ml respectively on leukemia CCRF-CEM cells, CEM/5000 cells and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines] [4]
Fagara leprieurii (Guill and Perr) Engl. (Rutaceae) 37 632/HNC Gastritis, gingivitis. bilharzias, antidiarrhoeal, cancer, laxative, antimicrobial, ulcer, gonorrhea, kidney ache., sterility [4, 14, 15] Bark, leaves. roots Antimicrobial : Ethanol extract of the seeds on Ca. Cn. Mg. Tm. Tr. Bci. Af. Afl. Sb[6]Essential oil : Sa[15]
     Cytotoxicity of seeds crude methanol extract [weak activity on leukemia CCRF-CEM and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines and significant activity on CEM/ADR5000 cells with IC50 value of 8.13 μg/ml] [4]
Imperata cylindricum Beauv. var. koenigii Durand et Schinz (ramineae) 30 139/SRFC Diuretic, anti-inflammatory, dysentery, urinary tract infections, cancer [4, 16, 17] Leaves, roots Cytotoxicity of roots crude methanol extract [Significant activity with IC50 values of 8.4; 7.18 and 12.11 μg/ml respectively on leukemia CCRF-CEM cells, CEM/5000 cells and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines] [4]
Monodora myristica Dunal (Annonaceae) 2 949/SRFC Insecticidal, diuretic, constipation, anti-hemorrhage, headache, wounds, worm infections,cancer [4, 15, 18, 19] Fruits, leaves. seeds Antimicrobial : Fm. Afl. Af[18]; Essential oil : Af. Bc. Bs. Cgl. Ec. Kp. Sa. Sf[15]. Cytotoxicity of fruits seeds methanol extract [weak activity on leukemia CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 cells, and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines] [4]
Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill. (Capparaceae) 42 918/HNC Gastric ulcer, cancer [4, 20] Fruits, leaves Cytotoxicity of roots crude methanol extract [weak activity on leukemia CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 cells, and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines] [4]
Piper guineense (Schum and Thonn) (Piperaceae) 6 018/SRFC Cough, bronchitis, rheumatism, insecticidal, anemia, carminative, stomach ache, cancer [4, 8, 21] Fruits, leaves. bark Insecticidal : Cs[20]Antimicrobial (Q); Ec. Sa. Bs. Pa. Ca. An[8, 22]
Scorodophloeus zenkerii Harms (Caesalpiniaceae) 44 803/HNC Cancer [4] Leaves. roots Antimicrobial : Essential oil of stem bark on Ec, Sa, Bs, Cu [23].
     Cytotoxicity of fruits crude methanol extract [weak activity on leukemia CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 cells, and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines] [4]
Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum. & Thonn) Taub. (Mimosaceae) 12 117/SRFC Pain, arthritis, epilepsy, convulsion, gastric ulcer, cancer [4, 20] Bark, leaves. roots Cytotoxicity of fruits crude methanol extract [weak activity on leukemia CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 cells, and pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cell lines] [4]
  1. a(HNC): Cameroon National Herbarium; (SRFC): Société des reserves forestières du Cameroun; b(/): Not reported.
  2. c[Screened activity: significant (S: CMI < 100 μg/ml). moderate (M : 100 < CMI ≤ 625 μg/ml). Weak (W: CMI > 625 μg/ml) Q: Qualitative activity based on the determination of inhibition zone [15]; Af : Aspergillus fumigatus. Afl : Aspergillus flavus. An: Aspergillus niger. Bc : Bacillus cereus. Bci : Botrytis cinerea. Bs : Bacillis subtilis. Bt: Botryodiploidia theobromae. Ca : Candida albicans. Cd : Clostridium difficile. Cm : Colletotrichum musae. Cn : Cryptococcus neoformans. Cs: Callosobruchus subinnotatus. Cu : Candida utilis. Ec : Escherichia coli. Fm :Fusarium moniliforme. Fo :Fusarium oxysporum. Fp : Fusarium proliferatum. Lt : Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Mg : Microsporum gypseum. Pa: Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sa : Staphylococcus aureus. Sb: Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Tm: Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Tr: Trichophyton rubrum.