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Figure 1 | BMC Research Notes

Figure 1

From: Comparative in-vivo toxicity of venoms from South Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Viperidae: Crotalinae: Hypnale)

Figure 1

Histopathological changes caused by H. hypnale, H. nepa and H. zara venoms in mouse kidneys. (Note: the histopathological changes caused by the three Hypnale venoms were similar. The dose and the type of venom led to each histopathological change in representative photographs are mentioned within the parenthesis) Congested glomeruli (a: 2.3 μg/g dose of H. hypnale venom) and peritubular vasculature (b: 2.3 μg/g dose of H. hypnale venom); petechial haemorrhages in renal paranchyma(c: 2.5 μg/g dose of H. hypnale venom); hydrophic degeneration of tubular cells (d: 7.0 μg/g dose of H. zara venom); tubular necrosis (e: 9.0 μg/g dose of H. zara venom)(note dilated tubules, many tubular cells with high cytoplasmic eosiophilia and pyknotic nuclei); dilated and necrosed proximal tubule (f: 9.0 μg/g dose of H. zara venom) filled with hyaline material and having tubular cells with pyknosed nuclei (black arrow) and a vesicular nuclei (white arrow) as seen in test mice. Normal glomerulus (g: 0.9% sterile NaCl solution) and proximal tubule (h: 0.9% sterile NaCl solution) seen in control mice.

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