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Table 2 Minimum doses of the three Hypnale venoms led to each observed histopathological alteration in BALB/c mouse organs

From: Comparative in-vivo toxicity of venoms from South Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Viperidae: Crotalinae: Hypnale)

Histopathological change Minimum venom dose (μg/g)
  H. hypnale H. nepa H. zara
Petecheal haemorrhages in renal paranchyma 0.9 4.8 3.2
Degenerative changes in renal tubules 0.4 2.9 2.2
Renal tubular necrosis 1.2 8.0 4.4
Degeneration of hepatocytes 0.5 3.8 2.1
Random hepatocellular necrosis 0.7 5.2 2.8
Congestion in lung paranchyma 0.3 3.6 2.2
Haemorrhage into alveolar spaces 1.3 5.1 3.7
Inflammatory infiltrate in alveolar sepate 1.3 4.8 3.7
Pulmonary oedema 1.6 7.6 3.0
Focal neuronal degeneration in brain 1.8 8.2 5.3