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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of all HCC patients and comparison of viral-HCC vs. viral marker negative HCC

From: Hepatocellular carcinoma in Native South Asian Pakistani population; trends, clinico-pathological characteristics & differences in viral marker negative & viral-hepatocellular carcinoma

  ALL HCC cases Comparison of viral-HCC vs. viral marker negative HCC mean ± SD/%
n = (645), mean ± SD/%    
  Viral-HCC (n = 546) Viral marker negative HCC (n = 99) P value
Age(years) 56.93 ± 11.15 56.46 ± 10.85 59.57 ± 12.45 0.01
Gender     
  Female 29.1 29.9 25.3 0.34
  Male 70.9 70.1 74.7  
BMI (Kg/m2)     
  <18 6.2 5.5 10.1  
  18-22.9 28.1 28.6 25.3 0.24
  23-24.9 23.6 22.9 27.3  
  ≥25 42.2 43.0 37.4  
Diabetes Mellitus     
  No 59.8 61.7 49.5 0.02
  Yes 40.2 38.3 50.5  
Hypertension     
  No 65.6 66.8 58.6 0.11
  Yes 34.4 33.2 41.4  
Dyslipidemia     
  No 97.5 97.4 98.0 0.74
  Yes 2.5 2.6 2.0  
Child score 9.29 ± 2.31 9.27 ± 2.29 9.40 ± 2.43 0.59
Child class     
  A 12.6 12.8 11.1 0.50
  B 42.3 43.0 38.4  
  C 45.1 44.1 50.5  
Okuda class     
  I 14.3 14.3 14.1 0.97
  II 61.4 61.5 60.6  
  III 24.3 24.2 25.3  
Complication of CLD     
  No 25.6 26.2 22.2 0.39
  Yes 74.4 73.8 77.8  
Hyperspleenism     
  No 37.8 36.6 44.4 0.14
  Yes 62.2 63.4 55.6  
Ascites     
  No 31.5 31.3 32.3 0.84
  Yes 68.5 68.7 67.7  
PSE     
  No 65.9 66.8 60.6 0.23
  Yes 34.1 33.2 39.4  
Esophageal varices     
  No 47.0 46.3 50.5 0.44
  Yes 53.0 53.7 49.5  
Upper GI bleed     
  No 59.5 59.2 61.6 0.64
  Yes 40.5 40.8 38.4  
Hepatohydrothorax     
  No 91.0 91.4 88.9 0.43
  Yes 9.0 8.6 11.1  
Hepatorenal syndrome     
  No 77.4 77.8 74.7 0.50
  Yes 22.6 22.2 25.3  
Hepatopulmonary syndrome     
  No 92.2 92.9 88.9 0.19
  Yes 7.8 7.1 11.1  
Total Bilirubin(mg/dl)     
  <2 50.2 50.7 47.5 0.48
  2-3 20.5 20.9 18.2  
  >3 29.3 28.4 34.3  
Albumin(mg/dl)     
  >3.5 8.1 7.7 10.1 0.73
  2.8-3.5 29.3 29.5 28.3  
  <2.8 62.6 62.8 61.6  
ALT (IU/ml)     
  Normal 30.23 28.4 40.4 0.19
  Elevated 69.77 71.6 59.6  
Prothrombin time(seconds)     
  No 92.2 92.9 88.9 0.19
  Yes 7.8 7.1 11.1  
Total Bilirubin(mg/dl)     
  <2 50.2 50.7 47.5 0.48
  2-3 20.5 20.9 18.2  
  >3 29.3 28.4 34.3  
Albumin(mg/dl)     
  >3.5 8.1 7.7 10.1 0.73
  2.8-3.5 29.3 29.5 28.3  
  <2.8 62.6 62.8 61.6  
ALT (IU/ml)     
  Normal 30.23 28.4 40.4 0.19
  Elevated 69.77 71.6 59.6  
Prothrombin time(seconds)     
  <3 42.8 41.6 49.5 0.14
  3-6 34.6 36.1 26.3  
  >6 22.6 22.3 24.2  
Platelets counts(10 9 /L) 165.91 ± 107.02 155.72 ± 96.33 222.12 ± 141.01 <0.001
AFP(IU/ml)     
  ≤200 58.8 58.2 61.6 0.30
  >200 41.2 41.8 38.4