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Table 4 Histopathological alterations observed in the brains of the dogs, according to the experimental groups

From: T and B lymphocytes in the brains of dogs with concomitant seropositivity to three pathogenic protozoans: Leishmania chagasi, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum

Alteration1 LTN group L group TN group C group
(n = 24) (n = 31) (n = 16) (n = 10)
n % n % n % n %
Blood vessel walls hyalinization (choroid plexus) 3 12.5 9 29.0 1 6.3 3 30.0
Blood vessel walls hyalinization (leptomeninges) 4 16.7 4 12.9 1 6.3 1 10.0
Ependymal rosettes 2 8.3 2 6.5 - - - -
Inflammatory lesions 2 18 75.0 17 54.8 10 62.5 - -
Microhemorrhages 3 12.5 - - 1 6.3 - -
No alteration 6 25.0 7 22.6 5 31.3 6 60.0
  1. 1One animal could have presented more than one alteration (n = 81).
  2. 2Inflammatory lesions, predominantly mononuclear cell infiltrates, at the choroid plexus, ependyma, leptomeninges and around parenchymal blood vessels (perivascular cuffs).