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Table 2 Maternal characteristics of women with GDM

From: Gestational diabetes and macrosomia by race/ethnicity in Hawaii

Maternal characteristics GDM (%) GDM weighted N P-Valued Odds ratio (CI)
Total sample 10. 9 5925   
Maternal ethnicity
White 7. 4 934 0. 025 Referent
Hawaiian/Pacific Islandera 12. 1 2450 0. 002 1.71 (1.19-2.44)
Filipina 13. 1 1258   1.88 (1.26-2.79)
Other Asiansb 11. 0 989   1.53 (1.00-2.34)
White 7. 4 934 0. 002 Referent
Asian Pacific Islanderc 12. 1 4697   1.71 (1.22-2.38) aOR 1.49 (1.05-2.11)
Maternal age (yrs)
< 25 6. 9 1154 <0. 001 Referent
≥ 25 12. 8 4802   1.98 (1.45-2.70)
BMI
Underweight/Normal 6. 8 2127 <0. 001 Referent
Overweight /Obese 16. 7 3474   2.75 (2.13-3.55)
Maternal nativity
US born 9. 8 3972 <0. 001 Referent
Foreign born 14. 7 1985   1.59 (1.23-2.07)
Household income
< $10,000 9. 5 913 0. 462 Referent
$10,000-49,999 11. 6 2664   1.25 (0.88-1.79)
≥ $50,000 11. 2 2050   1.21 (0.83-1.75)
Maternal education
High school or less 11. 6 2908 0. 201 Referent
Some college or more 10. 1 2867   0.85 (0.67-1.09)
Married
No 9. 9 2081 0. 151 Referent
Yes 11. 7 3876   1.20 (0.93-1.55)
Smoking last 3 month of pregnancy
No 10. 6 5330 0. 053 Referent
Yes 15. 3 620   1.51 (1.00-2.30)
1st trimester prenatal care
No 12. 9 1122 0. 154 Referent
Yes 10. 5 4712   0.80 (0.58-1.09)
  1. aIncludes Samoan, Guamanian, Other Pacific Islanders.
  2. bIncludes Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Asian Indian, and other Asians.
  3. cIncludes Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, Filipinos, and Other Asians.
  4. dData significance at p-value < 0.05.