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Table 2 General characteristics of Ghanaian pre-and postmenopausal women

From: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its predominant components among pre-and postmenopausal Ghanaian women

Parameters Total Postmenopausal Premenopausal P value
(n = 250) (n = 107) (n = 143)
Age (years) 44.23 ± 0.90 57.25 ± 0.80 34.48 ± 0.74 <0.0001
Anthropometric Parameters
WC (cm) 92.41 ± 0.72 95.83 ± 0.93 89.85 ± 1.01 <0.0001
WHR 0.88 ± 0.004 0.91 ± 0.005 0.87 ± 0.005 <0.0001
WTR 1.67 ± 0.009 1.72 ± 0.013 1.62 ± 0.011 <0.0001
WHtR 0.58 ± 0.004 0.60 ± 0.006 0.56 ± 0.006 <0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) 26.65 ± 0.32 26.92 ± 0.46 26.39 ± 0.44 0.4150
Hemodynamic Parameters
SBP (mmHg) 132.5 ± 1.20 140.6 ± 1.75 126.4 ± 1.44 <0.0001
DBP (mmHg) 86.3 ± 0.73 89.87 ± 1.09 83.62 ± 0.93 <0.0001
PP (mmHg) 46.17 ± 0.76 50.76 ± 1.12 42.73 ± 0.93 <0.0001
Socio-demographic Parameters
Passive Smokers 35(14%) 22(20.6%) 13(9.1%) 0.0160
Alcoholics 89(35.6%) 47(43.9%) 42(29.4%) 0.0230
Married 148(59.2%) 61(57.01%) 87(60.8%) 0.6033
Occupation
Manual 112(44.8%) 52(48.6%) 58(40.6%) 0.2470
Non-manual 118(47.2%) 39(36.4%) 81(56.6%) 0.0020
Outside of EAP 20(8%) 16(15%) 4(2.8%) 0.0006
High Education 73(29.2%) 27(25.2%) 46(32.2%) 0.2621
Physically Inactive 102(40.8%) 37(36.4%) 65(45.5%) 0.0920
Family History of Hypertension 95(38%) 41(38.3%) 54(37.8%) 1.0000
Family History of Diabetes 65(26%) 35(32.7%) 30(21%) 0.0420
Biochemical Assays
TC (mmol/l) 4.40 ± 0.053 4.41 ± 0.084 4.40 ± 0.069 0.8504
TG (mmol/l) 1.20 ± 0.033 1.31 ± 0.061 1.12 ± 0.035 0.0060
HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.34 ± 0.016 1.31 ± 0.027 1.37 ± 0.021 0.0700
LDL-C (mmol/l) 2.51 ± 0.048 2.50 ± 0.076 2.52 ± 0.061 0.9131
VLDL-C (mmol/l) 0.42 ± 0.012 0.46 ± 0.022 0.40 ± 0.013 0.0060
HDL-C/TC 0.31 ± 0.004 0.30 ± 0.006 0.32 ± 0.005 0.0702
TG/HDL-C 0.97 ± 0.042 1.11 ± 0.081 0.86 ± 0.039 0.0040
FBG (mmol/l) 5.19 ± 0.079 5.57 ± 0.15 4.9 ± 0.074 <0.0001
  1. Continuous data were presented as mean ± standard error of mean (SEM). Categorical data are presented as frequency with percentages in parenthesis. Continuous data were compared using unpaired t-test whilst categorical data were compared using Fischer’s exact test. VLDL-C: Very Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, LDL-C: Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, HDL-C: High Density Lipoprotein, TC: Total Cholesterol, TG: Triglycerides, FBG: Fasting Blood Glucose, WHR: Waist-to-Hip Ratio, BMI: Body Mass Index, WC: Waist Circumference, WTR: Waist-to-Thigh Ratio, WHtR: Waist-to-Height Ratio, SBP: Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP: Diastolic Blood Pressure, PP: Pulse Pressure, EAP: Economically active population.