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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of acute cocaine intoxication

From: Acute cocaine-related health problems in patients presenting to an urban emergency department in Switzerland: a case series

  All cases Use of cocaine with other drugs Use of cocaine alone
  No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
  Total N = 165 Total N = 138 Total N = 27
Severity of poisoning    
Severe poisoning 21 (13) 21 (15) 0 (0)*
Cardiovascular    
Chest pain 35 (21) 32 (23) 3 (11)
Palpitations 32 (19) 23 (17) 9 (33)
Dyspnea 21 (13) 16 (12) 5 (19)
Hypertension (systolic pressure >140 mmHg) 87 (53) 70 (51) 17 (63)
Tachycardia (>100 beats per minute) 72 (44) 62 (45) 10 (37)
Myocardial infarction 2 (1) 2 (1) 0 (0)
Hyperthermia >38.0°C 15 (9) 12 (9) 3 (11)
Hypoxemia (oxygen saturation <95%) 20 (12) 18 (13) 2 (7)
Psychiatric    
Anxiety 60 (36) 46 (33) 14 (52)
Restlessness 60 (36) 47 (34) 13 (48)
Hallucinations, paranoia, or psychosis 23 (14) 14 (10) 9 (33)
Agitation 37 (22) 28 (20) 9 (33)
Depression 32 (19) 28 (20) 4 (15)
Insomnia 18 (11) 18 (13) 0 (0)
Suicide ideation 15 (9) 12 (9) 3 (11)
Disorientation 17 (10) 15 (11) 2 (7)
Neurologic    
Impaired consciousness, GCS <9 17 (10) 15 (11) 2 (7)
Impaired consciousness, GCS 9-12 10 (6) 10 (7) 0 (0)
Impaired consciousness, GCS <13 27 (16) 25 (18) 2 (7)
Dizziness 24 (15) 21 (15) 3 (11)
Headache 16 (10) 14 (10) 2 (7)
Paresthesia 15 (9) 11 (8) 4 (15)
Seizure 3 (2) 2 (1) 1 (4)
Tremor 3 (2) 3 (2) 0 (0)
Stroke 1 (1) 1 (1) 0 (0)
Miscellanous    
Weakness 50 (30) 49 (36) 1 (4)
Nausea or vomiting 25 (15) 21 (15) 4 (15)
Myocloni or muscle cramps 9 (5) 7 (5) 2 (7)
Muscle pain 12 (7) 10 (7) 2 (7)
Abdominal pain 15 (9) 13 (9) 2 (7)
Elevated creatine kinase (>250 U/L) 73 (44) 62 (45) 11 (41)
  1. *significant group difference (Fisher’s exact test, *p < 0.05).