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Table 1 Description of the ten motivationally distinct value orientations as described by Schwartz [9]

From: Differences in prevalence rates of PTSD in various European countries explained by war exposure, other trauma and cultural value orientation

Value Description
Self-direction Independent thought and action: choosing, creating exploring.
Stimulation Excitement, novelty, and challenge in life.
Hedonism Pleasure and sensuous gratification for oneself.
Achievement Personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards.
Power Social status and prestige, control or dominance over people and resources
Security Safety, harmony, and stability of society, of relationships, and of self
Conformity Restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms.
Tradition Respect, commitment, and acceptance of the customs and ideas that traditional culture and religion provide the self
Benevolence Preserving and enhancing the welfare of those with whom one is in frequent personal contact
Universalism Understanding, appreciation, tolerance, and protection for the welfare of all people and for nature