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Table 3 Association of depression (as measured on CESD and GDS) with social support in terms of practical and emotional social support

From: A pilot study of depression among older people in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Type of Social support Frequency and Percent depressed as measured with CESD Frequency and Percent depressed as measured with GDS P
Emotional support    
Low 54(78.3) 44 (81.5) 0.00*
High 15 (21.7) 10 (18.5)  
Practical support    0.00*
Low 48 (69.6) 39(72.2)  
High 21(30.4) 15 (27.8) 0.00*
  1. Note: *p < 0.05. The value of p corresponds to significance of association of both GDS and CESD with social support subscales. CESD = Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; GDS = Geriatric depression Scale.