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Table 1 Potential structural and process factors for contamination

From: Potential causes of black-stained peritoneal dialysis tubing: an analysis from nurse practitioner’s prospect

  Round 1 Round 2 Round 3
Inadequate number of nephrologist 1.94 [1.58, 2.29] 2.05 [1.70, 2.40] 2.11 [1.91, 2.30]
Inadequate number of PD nurse 2.00 [1.66, 2.34] 2.65 [2.27, 3.04] 2.51 [2.29, 2.73]
Patient male gender 1.68 [1.44, 1.92] 1.79 [1.52, 2.06] 2.06 [1.89, 2.23]
Patient history of diabetes 2.61 [2.29, 2.94] 2.59 [2.26, 2.93] 2.79 [2.61, 2.97]
Patient history of peritonitis 2.68 [2.39, 2.98] 2.81 [2.49, 3.14] 3.03 [2.83, 3.22]
Care by patient’s relatives 2.16 [1.87, 2.45] 2.75 [2.42, 3.08] 2.59 [2.40, 2.77]
Use APD 1.58 [1.38, 1.78] 1.71 [1.48, 1.95] 2.60 [2.42, 2.76]
Low serum albumin 2.56 [2.24, 2.89] 2.97 [2.66, 3.28] 2.84 [2.66, 3.02]
Inadequate dialysis 2.21 [1.93, 2.48] 2.81 [2.50, 3.13] 3.00 [2.80, 3.20]
Types of Tenchkoff catheter 2.11 [1.82, 2.40] 2.32 [2.03, 2.60] 2.41 [2.23, 2.58]
Antibiotic prophylaxis 1.69 [1.44, 1.94] 1.82 [1.56, 2.09] 2.26 [2.07, 2.45]
Use of povidone-iodine for dressing 2.67 [2.33, 3.00] 3.11 [2.74, 3.47] 3.35 [3.16, 3.55]
Use of chlorhexidine for dressing 1.83 [1.60, 2.07] 2.18 [1.91, 2.45] 2.39 [2.21, 2.56]
Dressing techniques 2.32 [1.99, 2.66] 2.71 [2.39, 3.04] 2.78 [2.59, 2.97]
Lack of soaking transfer set in antiseptics 2.11 [1.80, 2.42] 2.49 [2.15, 2.84] 2.81 [2.62, 3.01]
Use of povidone-iodine during transfer set change 3.05 [2.71, 3.38] 3.50 [3.17, 3.83] 3.43 [3.24, 3.62]
Use of chlorhexidine during transfer set change 1.76 [1.53, 1.99] 2.37 [2.07, 2.67] 2.42 [2.26, 2.58]
Had dry abdomen period 2.62 [2.22, 3.03] 2.89 [2.49, 3.30] 2.76 [2.57, 2.94]
Use of Baxter (India) as dialysate 2.22 [1.92, 2.53] 2.76 [2.41, 3.11] 2.43 [2.26, 2.61]
Use of Baxter (Singapore) as dialysate 2.08 [1.81, 2.36] 2.39 [2.07, 2.70] 2.35 [2.19, 2.51]
Use of Fresenius as dialysate 1.82 [1.55, 2.09] 2.21 [1.90, 2.52] 2.26 [2.10, 2.42]
Use of GHP as dialysate 1.96 [1.58, 2.35] 2.15 [1.84, 2.46] 2.21 [2.05, 2.36]