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Table 2 Risk factors of chronic hepatitis B transmission for positive HBsAg patients

From: Seroepidemiology of chronic hepatitis B and C in the French Caribbean Island of Guadeloupe

Risk factor Positive HBs Ag patients Negative HBsAg patients P value
  N = 31 (%) N = 2169 (%)  
Past surgery 12 (38.7) 607 (28.0) NS
Endoscopy 12 (38.7) 572 (26.4) NS
Piercing 4 (12.9) 91 (4.2) p = 0.014
Shaving 4 (12.9) 348 (16.0) NS
Tatoo 3 (9.7) 213 (9.8) NS
Familial exposure 2 (6.4) 33 (1.5) p < 0.001
Using drugs intraveinously 0 (0.0) 1(0.0) NS
  1. NS, Not significant.