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Table 2 Logistic regression model showing the β coefficient and odds ratios of factors associated with access to maternal health services and use of antenatal services in Mdantsane

From: Determinants of access to and use of maternal health care services in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: a quantitative and qualitative investigation

Characteristics Access to maternal health services Antenatal visits for pregnancy
Model I Model II
β Odds ratio 95% C.I. β Odds ratio 95% C.I.
  Lower Upper Lower Upper
Age         
 15-19®   1     1   
 20-24 0.4 1.5 0.3 6.9 −0.2 0.9 0.2 3.5
 25-29 0.4 1.5 0.3 6.8 0.7 2.0 0.5 7.6
 30-34 0.2 1.2 0.3 5.7 1.0 2.7 0.7 10.6
 35-39 0.7 2.0 0.4 10.2 1.7 5.5*** 1.3 23.4
 40 and above 0.2 1.2 0.2 7.2 1.7 5.3*** 1.1 25.7
Marital status         
 Married®   1     1   
 Not married −0.3 0.7 0.3 1.8 0.4 1.5 0.7 3.2
Maternal education         
 None®   1     1   
 Primary 0.1 1.1 0.2 8.0 0.6 1.9 0.3 13.9
 Secondary 0.6 1.8 0.3 10.6 1.1 2.9 0.4 19.1
 Tertiary 0.2 1.2 0.2 10.3 0.5 1.6 0.2 14.2
Occupation         
 None®   1     1   
 Housewife −1.3 0.3 0.1 1.6 −0.6 0.6 0.2 2.1
 Self-employed −0.6 0.6 0.2 1.4 −1.2 0.3** 0.1 0.7
 Government employee 1.6 5.0 0.4 57.9 −0.1 0.9 0.2 4.9
 Private employee −1.3 0.3*** 0.1 0.9 −0.5 0.6 0.2 1.5
 Living on social grants −0.4 0.7 0.3 1.5 −0.4 0.7 0.3 1.4
Residential area         
 Within Mdantsane®   1     1   
 Outside Mdantsane 0.3 1.3 0.4 4.2 −0.3 0.8 0.3 1.9
Distance to hospital/health facility         
 More than 20 km®   1     1   
 Less than 20 km 1.0 2.7 0.9 8.7 −0.3 0.8 0.3 1.9
Financial difficulties         
 Difficult®   1     1   
 Not difficult 0.4 1.6 0.7 3.4 0.1 1.1 0.6 2.3
 Did not try to find/get money −1.3 0.3 0.0 8.2 0.7 2.1 0.4 10.9
Means of travelling/transport         
 Walk®   1     1   
 Public transport −0.4 0.7 0.2 2.3 −0.9 0.4 0.1 1.3
 Private transport −1.9 0.2 0.0 1.4 −1.4 0.2 0.0 1.2
Cultural factors         
 Yes®   1     1   
 No −2.3 0.1* 0.0 0.5 0.5 1.7 0.4 6.4
Did you find the health care information useful?         
 Yes®   1     1   
 No −1.3 0.3* 0.1 0.5 −0.2 0.8 0.4 1.6
Knowledge of maternal services offered         
 Yes®   1     1   
 No −1.3 0.3*** 0.1 0.8 −0.1 0.9 0.4 1.9
Medical aid         
 Yes®   1     1   
 No −3.4 0.0* 0.0 0.2 0.0 1.0 0.3 3.3
Constant 5.3 190.9    −1.4 0.3   
  1. Note: Significance level: * = P<0.001; ** = P<0.01; *** = P<0.05; 5+ = 5 and above.
  2. ® = Reference category.