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Table 4 Associations between number of different helminth parasite infections and cytokine production by peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) stimulated with A. lumbricoides antigen in 1,271 children

From: Effects of helminth co-infections on atopy, asthma and cytokine production in children living in a poor urban area in Latin America

Number of helminth infections A. lumbricoides-induced cytokine production
n (%) % Non-responders % Responders Crude Adjusted
(n) (n) #OR (95% CI) ##OR (95% CI)
IFN-γ [mean (pg/mL) = 12.3]*
   (n = 904) (n = 23)   
0 416 (44.9) 97.1 2.9 1 1
1 342 (36.9) 98.0 2.0 0.70 (0.27; 1.81) 0.71 (0.27; 1.87)
2 114 (12.3) 97.4 2.6 0.91 (0.25; 3.28) 0.90 (0.24; 3.38)
3 55 (5.9) 98.2 1.8 0.62 (0.08; 4.89) 0.64 (0.08; 5.23)
IL-5 [mean (pg/mL) = 26.6]*
  (n = 1.013) (n = 139)  
0 530 (46,0) 91.3 8.7 1 1
1 422 (36,6) 87.7 12.3 1.47 (0.97; 2.25) 1.45 (0.94; 2.23)
2 140 (12,2) 82.9 17.1 2.17 (1.28; 3.71) 1.89 (1.09; 3.28)
3 60 (5,2) 71.7 28.3 4.16 (2.20; 7.87) 3.54 (1.82; 6.86)
IL-10 [mean (pg/mL) = 36.3]*
  (n = 1.205) (n = 51)  
0 568 (45.2) 97.4 2.6 1 1
1 461 (36.7) 95.1 4.9 1.93 (1.00; 3.75) 1.87 (0.95; 3.66)
2 160 (12.8) 93.8 6.2 2.46 (1.08; 5.58) 2.23 (0.96; 5.18)
3 67 (5.3) 95.5 4.5 1.73 (0.49; 6.13) 1.43 (0.39; 5.23)
IL-13 [mean (pg/mL) = 64.5]*
  (n = 955) (n = 236)  
0 542 (45.5) 81.6 18.4 1 1
1 438 (36.8) 79.2 20.8 1.16 (0.84; 1.59) 1.18 (0.85; 1.63)
2 147 (12.3) 83.0 17.0 0.91 (0.56; 1.47) 0.90 (0.55; 1.48)
3 64 (5.4) 68.8 31.2 2.01 (1.13; 3.56) 1.99 (1.10; 3.58)
  1. #Crude logist analysis. ##Logist analysis adjusted for gender, age, maternal education and parental asthma. *Geometric mean; Numbers in bold are statistically significant at P < 0.05 . OR – odds ratio. 95% CI – 95% confidence interval.