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Table 4 Students’ awareness and knowledge about the effect of Waterpipe smoking on oral health (N = 547)

From: Prevalence, social acceptance, and awareness of waterpipe smoking among dental university students: a cross sectional survey conducted in Jordan

Awareness and knowledge questions Responses N (%)
Agree Disagree Don’t know
Male N (%) Female N (%) Total N (%) Male N (%) Female N (%) Total N (%) Male N (%) Female N (%) Total N (%)
Waterpipe smoking is less harmful to oral health than cigarettes smoking 66 (44.0) 90 (22.8) 156 (28.6) 72 (48.0) 263 (66.6) 335 (61.5) 12 (8.0) 42 (10.6) 54 (9.9)
Waterpipe smoking transfers infectious diseases 123 (82.0) 357 (90.4) 480 (88.1) 22 (14.7) 16 (4.1) 38 (7.0) 5 (3.3) 22 (5.6) 27 (5.0)
Waterpipe smoking is a risk factor for oral cancer 109 (72.7) 339 (85.6) 448 (82.1) 21 (14.0) 16 (4.0) 37 (6.8) 20 (3.3) 41 (10.4) 61 (11.2)
Waterpipe smoking may aggregate the inflammation of gum tissues 120 (79.5) 367 (92.7) 487 (89.0) 17 (11.3) 13 (3.3) 30 (5.5) 14 (9.3) 16 (4.0) 30 (5.5)
Waterpipe smoking increases the incidence of dry sockets 103 (68.7) 297 (75.2) 400 (73.4) 16 (10.7) 22 (5.6) 38 (7.0) 31 (20.7) 76 (19.2) 107 (19.6)
Waterpipe smoking causes teeth and oral tissues staining 114 (75.5) 342 (86.4) 456 (83.4) 27 (17.9) 31 (7.8) 58 (10.6) 10 (6.6) 23 (5.8) 33 (6.0)
Waterpipe smoking causes halitosis 85 (56.7) 298 (75.4) 383 (70.3) 54 (36.0) 60 (15.2) 114 (20.9) 11 (7.3) 37 (9.4) 48 (8.8)
Waterpipe smoking delays wound healing time 84 (55.6) 243 (61.4) 327 (59.8) 26 (17.2) 48 (12.1) 74 (13.5) 41 (27.2) 105 (26.5) 146 (26.7)
Waterpipe smoking is associated with dental implant failure 68 (45.0) 219 (55.3) 287 (52.5) 22 (14.6) 26 (6.6) 48 (8.8) 60 (39.7) 151 (38.1) 211 (38.6)
Waterpipe smoking increases the ones risk of dental decay 80 (53.0) 270 (68.4) 350 (64.1) 39 (25.8) 57 (14.4) 96 (17.6) 32 (21.2) 68 (17.2) 100 (18.3)