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Table 3 Participants’ initial awareness of and response to CL/P according to time period

From: Disclosure of congenital cleft lip and palate to Japanese patients: reported patient experiences and relationship to self-esteem

Period when participant learned about CL/P n Satisfaction scorea p-valueb
Before or during elementary school 34 3.24 ± 0.8 0.74*
Junior high school 11 2.82 ± 0.4 0.01**
High school/post-high school 26 1.92 ± 0.6 0.000***
  1. CL/P, cleft lip and palate.
  2. aParticipants were asked to respond to the following statement: “I am satisfied that I came to know about my CL/P condition during this time period,” with one of four responses (strongly agree [4 points] to strongly disagree [1 point]). A higher score indicated greater satisfaction by the respondent.
  3. bSignificance defined as p < 0.05 and determined by the Kruskal–Wallis test as follows: *comparing elementary and junior high school periods, **comparing junior and high school/post-high school periods, and ***comparing elementary school and high school/post-high school periods.