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Table 4 Mean values for blood lipid parameters before (T 0 ) and after (T 1 ) the training program in the low (N=6) and moderate (N=8) altitude study groups

From: Pilot study on the effects of a 2-week hiking vacation at moderate versus low altitude on plasma parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome

Variable Low altitude Moderate altitude Altitude Training Altitude × training
  T 0 T 1 T 0 T 1 η 2 P P η 2 P P η 2 P P
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 195.5 ± 29.4 188.8 ± 20.2 206.6 ± 36 179.9 ± 40.4 0.000 0.950 0.357 0.024 0.167 0.147
HDL-C (mg/dl) 47.5 ± 4.0 47.8 ± 7.7 46.6 ± 10.6 47.0 ± 11.6 0.002 0.866 0.011 0.716 0.000 0.983
LDL-C (mg/dl) 145.2 ± 30.8 131.7 ± 23.6 145.6 ± 33.3 120.2 ± 37.4 0.010 0.734 0.353 0.025 0.048 0.450
TG (mg/dl) 117.5 ± 48.5 121.5 ± 31.0 186.4 ± 93.1 126.8 ± 58.8 0.101 0.269 0.233 0.080 0.284 0.050
Free fatty acids (mg/dl) 13.6 ± 5.9 12.8 ± 8.3 11.5 ± 5.5 13.6 ± 4.8 0.003 0.846 0.025 0.590 0.106 0.257
Adiponectin (mg/l) 10.1 ± 2.8 9.1 ± 3.1 9.5 ± 2.9 8.1 ± 2.0 0.025 0.591 0.642 <0.001 0.027 0.578
Leptin (μg/l) 11.2 ± 5.3 11.8 ± 5.6 11.2 ± 9.1 8.2 ± 7.3 0.018 0.649 0.108 0.251 0.217 0.093
Insulin (U/l) 16.8 ± 10.2 18.3 ± 9.8 14.7 ± 5.8 15.7 ± 8.0 0.026 0.579 0.041 0.486 0.003 0.859
Glucose (mg/dl) 107.3 ± 23.5 105.8 ± 16.9 104.9 ± 18.1 103.3 ± 20.3 0.005 0.809 0.020 0.628 0.000 0.985
C-peptide (U/l) 3.6 ± 1.2 3.5 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.3 0.005 0.818 0.045 0.467 0.006 0.786
C-reactive protein (mg/dl) 0.20 ± 0.14 0.21 ± 0.11 0.43 ± 0.40 0.35 ± 0.36 0.128 0.209 0.021 0.652 0.026 0.580
  1. Effect sizes from a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA: main effect of altitude, main effect of training and altitude-training interaction.
  2. Data are mean ± standard deviation; η2 P = effect size (partial eta squared; ‘small’ effect size, 0.01 <η2 P ≤ 0.06; ‘medium’ effect size, 0.06 < η2 P ≤ 0.14; ‘large’ effect size, η2 P > 0.14); P = significance level of the F statistic; N = number; T = time point; BMI = body mass index; WC = waist circumference; Max. syst. BP = maximum systolic blood pressure; Diast. BP = diastolic blood pressure; HR = heart rate; bpm = beats per minute; Max. = maximum; Age-adjust. = age-adjusted; CF = cardiac frequency.