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Table 2 Characteristics of benchmark cohort

From: Benefits of applying a proxy eligibility period when using electronic health records for outcomes research: a simulation study

Variable N (%) Mean (SD)
Sample size, final 6,717 (100)  
Age (years)   69 (10.7)
Gender
 Female 3,319 (49.4)  
 Male 3,398 (50.6)  
Race
 Caucasian 5,783 (86.1)  
 African American 180 (2.7)  
 Asian 31 (0.5)  
 Other/unknown 723 (10.8)  
US region
 Midwest 3,956 (58.9)  
 South 1,529 (22.8)  
 West 878 (13.1)  
 Northeast 173 (2.6)  
 Other/unknown 181 (2.7)  
Outcomes in the 12 months post index
 Comorbidity
  Asthma 1,536 (22.9)  
  Chronic kidney disease 840 (12.5)  
  Cardiovascular disease 2,186 (32.5)  
  Depression 851 (12.7)  
 COPD medication of interest
  Inhaled corticosteroid 937 (13.9) 0.21 (0.6)
  Inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta agonists 2,832 (42.4) 0.72 (1.08)
  Long-acting beta agonists 226 (3.4) 0.05 (0.3)
  Long-acting muscarinic antagonists 2,219 (33.0) 0.53 (0.93)
 COPD-related symptoms
  Cough 3,958 (58.9) 2.93 (5.49)
  Reduced ability to perform activities 2,166 (32.2) 1.07 (3.13)
  Shortness of breath 4,284 (63.8) 3.48 (5.48)
  Wheezing 2,931 (43.6) 1.47 (3.11)
 Exacerbations 1,296 (19.3) 0.3 (0.78)
 All-cause resource utilization
  Emergency room visit 583 (8.7) 0.17 (0.78)
  Hospitalization 596 (8.9) 0.15 (0.56)
  Office visit 5,464 (81.3) 9.5 (11.12)
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