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Table 7 Comparison of neurocognitive data between groups

From: White matter deficits assessed by diffusion tensor imaging and cognitive dysfunction in psychostimulant users with comorbid human immunodeficiency virus infection

Test-variable Controls (n = 22) Patients (n = 21) Test statistic Effect size (d)
TMT trail A (s) 31.05 ± 1.22 33.81 ± 2.46 −0.74 −0.23
TMT trail B (s)b 66.77 ± 4.70 101.29 ± 10.30 147.0 (−2.04)* −0.65
Grooved pegboard dominant hand (s) 65.86 ± 1.95 95.05 ± 5.49 −3.96** −1.23
Grooved pegboard non-dominant hand (s) 71.05 ± 2.03 90.35a ± 4.05 −3.80** −1.21
RVP A′ 0.89 ± 0.01 0.86a ± 0.01 −1.84 −0.56
CVLT-II total recall 45.86 ± 1.98 34.33 ± 2.47 −2.37* −0.72
CVLT-II short delay free recall 10.23 ± 0.74 7.00 ± 0.67 −2.13* −0.65
CVLT-II long delay free recall 10.45 ± 0.61 7.48 ± 0.79 −1.67 −0.51
CVLT-II recognition discriminability 3.04 ± 0.19 2.47 ± 0.17 −1.30 −0.40
IED EDS errorsb 9.55 ± 2.16 17.10 ± 2.40 168.0 (−1.53) −0.61
IED Pre-EDS errorsb 21.41 ± 4.34 43.86 ± 7.43 191.0 (−0.972) −0.68
  1. Numbers indicate raw scores of group mean ± SEM with no mathematical transformations (lower scores represent better performance on variables measured in seconds or errors)
  2. Significant difference between groups * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01
  3. TMT trail making test, RVP rapid visual information processing, CVLT California verbal learning test, IED intra/extra dimensional shift
  4. an = 20; test statistic = t value from independent t-tests or b Mann–Whitney U (z) value from the non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test for non-normal data