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Table 3 Univariable analysis for AKI [27 of 228 (11.8 %) patients with AKI]

From: Risk factors for kidney injury during vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam administration, including increased odds of injury with combination therapy

Risk factor Incidence AKI % with AKI Odds ratio 95 % CI P value
Treatment
 Vancomycin 4/101 4.0 0.178 (0.058, 0.544) 0.003*
 Piperacillin/tazobactam 4/26 15.4 0.785 (0.242, 2.545) 0.69
 Combination vanc + piptazo 19/101 18.8 1.0   
 Vanc    0.227 (0.053, 0.978) 0.047*
 Piptazo    1.0   
Age
 Per 1 year increase    0.994 (0.968, 1.021) 0.69
Sex
 Male 11/148 7.4 0.321 (0.141, 0.731) 0.007*
 Female 16/80 20.0    
Race
 Caucasian 1/34 2.2 1.0   
 African-American 26/182 14.3 5.5 (0.721–41.968) 0.10
BMI
 ≥30 kg/m2 9/43 20.9 2.667 (1.053, 6.760) 0.04*
 <30 kg/m2 13/144 9.0 1.0   
Creatinine clearance
 <Median of 71.94 ml/min 11/95 11.6 0.964 (0.396, 2.347) 0.94
 ≥Median of 71.94 ml/min 11/92 12.0 1.0   
 Per 10 ml/min decrease    1.048 (0.922, 1.192) 0.47
Nephrotoxic agents
 IV contrast, yes 8/50 16.0 1.594 (0.652, 3.894) 0.31
 IV contrast, no 19/178 10.7 1.0   
 Aminoglycoside, yes 1/8 12.5 1.066 (0.126, 9.014) 0.95
 Aminoglycoside, no 26/220 11.8 1.0   
 NSAIDs, yes 5/31 16.1 1.521 (0.530, 4.368) 0.44
 NSAIDs, no 22/196 11.2 1.0   
 Tenofovir, yes 2/13 15.4 1.382 (0.290, 6.599) 0.68
 Tenofovir, no 25/215 11.6 1.0   
 ≥2 agents 1/17 5.9 0.445 (0.057, 3.495) 0.44
 <2 agents 26/211 12.3 1.0   
Diabetes
 Yes 7/49 14.3 1.325 (0.525, 3.343) 0.55
 No 20/179 11.2 1.0   
Hypertension
 Yes 14/91 15.4 1.734 (0.774, 3.886) 0.18
 No 13/137 9.5 1.0   
Malignancy
 Yes 3/16 18.8 1.808 (0.480, 6.803) 0.38
 No 24/212 11.3 1.0   
CKD
 Yes 2/12 16.7 1.528 (0.317, 7.377) 0.60
 No 25/216 11.6 1.0   
HIV
 Yes 6/50 12.0 1.020 (0.388, 2.681) 0.97
 No 21/178 11.8 1.0   
  1. P values <0.05 denoted by italics face plus asterisk