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Table 2 The differences of students’ perceptions (self-reported Likert means) towards sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance according to gender, academic year and cGPA

From: Perceptions of pre-clerkship medical students and academic advisors about sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance: a cross-sectional perspective from Saudi Arabia

Evaluative statement Gender Academic year cGPA
Male (n = 117) Mean (SD) Female (n = 142) Mean (SD) U test p value* 1st-year (n = 158) Mean (SD) 3rd-year (n = 101) Mean (SD) U test P value* High cGPA (n = 232) Mean (SD) Low cGPA (n = 27) Mean (SD) U test P value*
Sleep deprivation negatively affects my academic performance 4.0 (0.9) 4.1 (0.9) 7860 0.45 4.0 (1.0) 4.1 (0.8) 7866 0.85 4.0 (0.9) 4.3 (0.8) 3553 0.25
Sleep deprivation negatively affects my mood 4.0 (0.9) 4.2 (0.9) 7466 0.16 4.0 (1.0) 4.2 (0.8) 7142 0.16 4.1 (0.9) 4.1 (1.0) 3149 0.97
Stress of mid-term exams leads me to sleep deprivation 3.4 (1.2) 3.7 (1.2) 7284 0.09 3.5 (1.2) 3.7 (1.2) 7197 0.18 3.5 (1.2) 4.0 (1.0) 3935 0.03*
Stress of final exams leads me to sleep deprivation 3.9 (1.2) 4.1 (1.1) 7606 0.24 3.9 (1.2) 4.0 (1.1) 7784 0.74 4.9 (1.2) 4.6 (0.6) 4293 0.00*
The demanding medical curriculum leads me to sleep deprivation 3.5 (1.1) 3.9 (1.1) 6761 0.01* 3.6 (1.2) 3.9 (1.0) 6716 0.03* 3.7 (1.1) 4.0 (1.0) 3653 0.16
I’m interested in curricular individual courses about healthy sleep 3.2 (1.0) 3.3 (1.2) 7644 0.27 3.3 (1.1) 3.1 (1.1) 7175 0.17 3.2 (1.1) 3.5 (1.1) 3501 0.32
I’m interested in extracurricular activities about healthy sleep 3.1 (1.2) 3.5 (1.2) 6995 0.03* 3.3 (1.2) 3.2 (1.2) 7635 0.56 3.2 (1.2) 4.0 (1.1) 4307 0.00*
My academic advisor counsels me about my sleep patterns 2.1 (1.1) 2.5 (1.1) 6684 0.01* 2.4 (1.2) 2.2 (1.1) 7183 0.18 2.3 (1.1) 2.4 (1.1) 3290 0.67
I am knowledgeable about the healthy sleep patterns 3.7 (1.1) 3.7 (1.0) 8238 0.91 3.8 (1.0) 3.5 (1.1) 6978 0.09 3.6 (1.0) 4.0 (0.8) 3682 0.14
  1. All calculations of mean (SD) for all evaluative statements were based on the 5-point Likert rating scale
  2. U test Mann–Whitney U test score, SD standard deviation, cGPA cumulative grade point average; high cGPA ≥3.0/4.0; low cGPA <3.0/4.0
  3. aA two-tailed Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare the mean 5-point Likert scale responses across gender, academic year and cGPA
  4. Statistical significance, p value <0.05