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Table 1 Kampala catatonia panel consisting of ten screening items for catatonia

From: Catatonia in Ugandan children with nodding syndrome and effects of treatment with lorazepam: a pilot study

1 Excitement Extreme hyperactivity, constant motor unrest which is apparently non-purposeful, includes aggressive episodes
2 Immobility-stupor Extreme hypoactivity, remains in the same position for hours, immobility. Minimally responsive to stimuli
3 Mutism Verbally unresponsive or minimally responsive
4 Staring Fixed gaze, little or no visual scanning of environment, decreased blinking
5 Grimacing Facials spasms, facial tics, or maintenance of odd facial expressions
6 Echopraxia or echolalia Mimicking of examiner’s movements/speech
7 Rigidity Maintenance of a rigid position despite efforts to be moved
8 Negativism Apparently motiveless resistance to instructions or to attempts to move/examine the patient. Contrary behavior, does the opposite of the instruction
9 Active or passive refusal to eat or drink Minimal or reduced food and fluid intake during the past week
10 Impulsivity Patient suddenly engages in inappropriate behavior (e.g., runs down the hallway, starts screaming, or takes off clothes) without provocation. Afterwards, cannot explain