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Table 2 Statistical analysis of various risk factors for colonization with S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus spp.

From: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus species colonization in health care workers: the launch of invasive infections?

Characteristics No. (%), N = 150 Colonized, n = 81 (%) Not colonized, n = 69 (%) Chi square, P value* Odd ratio
Occupation
 HCW 100 (66.67) 65 (65) 35 (35) 0.001 3.946
 Non-HCW 50 (33.3) 16 (32) 34 (68) 1
Gender
 Female 73 (48.7) 36 (49.3) 37 (50.7) 0.262
 Male 77 (51.3) 45 (58.4) 32 (41.6)
Smoking
 Non-smoker 73 (48.7) 38 (52.1) 35 (47.9) 0.642
 Smoker 77 (51.3) 43 (55.8) 34 (44.2)
Designation
 Consultants 18 (12.0) 10 (58.8) 08 (41.2) 0.002
 Residents 18 (12.0) 15 (83.3) 03 (16.7)
 Interns 37 (24.7) 24 (64.9) 13 (35.1)
 Nursing staffs 15 (10.0) 09 (60.0) 06 (40.0)
 Laboratory staffs 12 (8.0) 07 (58.3) 05 (41.7)
 Basic science faculties and community subjects 50 (33.3) 16 (32.0) 34 (68.0)
History of recurrent RTI
 No 127 (84.7) 68 (53.5) 59 (46.5) 0.792
 Yes 23 (15.3) 13 (16.0) 10 (43.5)
Oropharyngeal examination
 Normal 137 (91.3) 71 (51.8) 66 (48.2) 0.083
 Enlarged or inflamed tonsils 13 (8.7) 10 (76.9) 03 (23.1)
Close contact with children
 No 90 (60.0) 54 (60.0) 36 (40.0) 0.071
 Yes 60 (40.0) 27 (45.0) 33 (47.8)
History of antibiotic use in preceding 15 days
 No 145 (96.7) 78 (53.8) 67 (46.2) 0.784
 Yes 05 (3.3) 03 (46.2) 02 (40.0)
History of Pneumococcal and Haemophilus disease
 No 150 (100) 81 (54.0) 69 (46.0)
 Yes 00 (00) 00 (00) 00 (00)
Vaccination status  
 No 150 (100) 81 (54.0) 69 (46.0)
 Yes 00 (00) 00 (00) 00 (00)
  1. * P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant