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Table 3 Virological failure and associated factors for children on ART at National Pediatric Hospital (Uni and multivariate analysis)

From: Factors associated with the failure of first and second-line antiretroviral therapies therapy, a case control study in Cambodian HIV-1 infected children

  Success % Failure % Total % p Crude Adj.
N = 214 92.2 N = 18 7.8 232 OR 95 % CI p OR 95 % CI p
Male 107 50.0 10 55.6 117 50.4 0.6 0.8 0.2–2.3 0.8 NI   
Female 107 50.0 8 44.4 115 49.6      NI   
Age up 7 years
 Age ≤ 7 years 24 11.2 1 5.6 25 10.8 0.4 2.1 0.3–93.4 0.7 NI   
 Age > 7 years 190 88.8 17 94.4 207 89.2        
Orphan both parents
 No 135 63.1 10 55.6 145 62.5 0.5 1.3 0.4–4.0 0.6 NI   
 Yes 79 36.9 8 44.4 87 37.5        
Orphan mother
 No 116 54.2 10 55.6 126 54.3 0.9 0.9 0.3–2.7 1 NI   
 Yes 98 45.8 8 44.4 106 45.7        
Living status
 Living with parents 144 67.3 11 61.1 155 66.8 0.5 1.3 0.4–3.8 0.6 NI   
 Living in orphanage 70 32.7 7 38.9 77 33.2        
Profession of parents
 Mother low skilleda
  No 48 22.4 4 22.2 52 22.4 0.9 1.0 0.2–5.3 1 NI   
  Yes 69 32.2 6 33.3 75 32.3        
 Father low skilleda              
  No 23   3 16.7    0.6 0.6 0.1–4.6 0.6 NI   
  Yes 66   6 33.3          
Cared for at home by
 Mother 70 32.7 9 50.0 79 34.1 0.03 1 (Ref.)      
 Caregiver 69 32.2 7 38.9 76 32.8   0.7 0.2–2.5 0.7 NI   
 Father 32 15.0 1 5.6 33 14.2   0.2 0.0–1.9 0.2    
 Grandmother 30 14.0 1 5.6 31 13.4   0.5 0.0–4.1 1 NI   
 Other 13 6.1 0 0.0 13 5.6   0.0 NA 0.3 NI   
House standard
 Family expense >2 USD/day              
  No 19 8.9 3 16.7 22 9.5 0.2 0.4 0.1–2.8 0.3 NI   
  Yes 195 91.1 15 83.3 210 90.5        
Have a TV set
 No 74 34.6 9 50.0 83 35.8 0.1 0.5 0.1–1.5 0.2 NS   
 Yes 140 65.4 9 50.0 149 64.2        
 Mean weight gain over last 24 monthsb 3.8 (3.4–4.1)   3.3 (2.0–4.5)     0.4     NI   
Knew his/her disease
 No 194 90.7 16 88.9 210 90.5 0.8 1.2 0.1–5.7 0.6 NI   
 Yes 20 9.3 2 11.1 22 9.5        
Caregiver knows child treatment
 No 30 14.0 0 0.0 30 12.9 0.08 0.0 NA 0.1 NS   
 Yes 184 86.0 18 100.0 202 87.1        
Initial WHO stage
 0 41 19.2 1 5.6 42 18.1 0.1 4.0 0.5–172 0.2 NS   
 sup à 1 173 80.8 17 94.4 190 81.9        
CD4 cells <15 % (initial)
 No 31 14.5 2 11.1 33 14.2 0.6 1.3 0.2–12.7 1 NI   
 Yes 183 85.5 16 88.9 199 85.8        
CD4 cells ≤15 % (last)
 No 207 96.7 7 38.8 214 92.2 <0.001 46.4 13.8–155 <0.001 40.4 11–134 <0.001
 Yes 7 3.2 11 61.1 18 7.7        
Treatment
 First-line ART 162 75.7 14 72.2 175 75.4 0.7 1.1 0.3–3.7 0.4    
 Second-line ART 52 24.3 4 27.8 57 24.6      NI   
 Adherence 208 97.2 18 100.0 226 97.4 0.4 0.0 0–7.7 1    
 Non-adherence 6 2.8 0 0.0 6 2.6        
Initial regimen with NVP
 No 48 22.4 2 11.1 50 21.6 0.3 2.3 0.5–21.3 0.3 NI   
 Yes 166 77.6 16 88.9 182 78.4        
Initial regimen with D4T
 No 48 22.4 3 16.7 51 22.0 0.5 1.4 0.3–8.0 0.7 NI   
 Yes 166 77.6 15 83.3 181 78.0        
  1. Variables in italics with p < 0.2 were included in the multivariate analyses
  2. Numbers and (percentages). Median and (interquartile range). Mean and [95 % confidence interval]
  3. NI not included, NS non significant, CI Confidence interval
  4. aLow skilled workers were: farmers, workers or factory workers, motor-taxi drivers, domestic helpers
  5. bFor children on first-line ART (OR 44.9 95 % CI 10.2–196.2) and the second-line group (OR 69; 95 % CI 4.7–995)