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Table 1 Host distribution of the predicted hairpin RNA secondary structures in the NS gene positive-sense RNA of influenza A viruses

From: The influenza A virus NS genome segment displays lineage-specific patterns in predicted RNA secondary structure

Influenza A virus (IAV) Number of strains Predicted secondary structure %
Nt 82–148 Nt 497–564
Hairpin (%) Multi-branch stem-loop (%) Hairpin (%)
Human IAVs 12,192 18 41 52
 Human H1N1 IAVs 1483 88 3 87*
 Human H2N2 IAVs 128 90 1 5*
 Human H3N2 IAVs 5342 8* 4 1*
 Human H1N1pdm2009 IAVs 4913 2* 97* 98*
 Human and swine IAVs of avian origin (e.g., H5, H7, and H9) 279 91 6 69*
Swine IAV 2794 10 58 50
 Swine triple reassortant IAVs 1467 1 69* 14*
 “Classical” swine IAVs lineage 349 4 46* 88*
 “Eurasian” swine IAVs lineage 382 55* 0* 98*
Avian IAVs 9674 60 35 90
Canine IAVs 234 95 0 85
Equine IAVs 153 91 2 8
Environmental IAVs 337 73 13 66
IAVs from other species 94 70 10 79
  1. Nt nucleotide positions
  2. * Differences are statistically significant (p < 0.5)