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Table 5 Complete multilevel estimates of the effect of user fee abolition on location of childbirth.

From: An assessment of the effect of user fee policy reform on facility-based deliveries in rural Zambia

  Model 1 Model 2
Home Private Public Home Private Public
Estimate S.E Estimate S.E Estimate S.E Estimate S.E Estimate S.E Estimate S.E
Individual level variables
Delivery post abolition of user fees −0.091 0.222 −0.537 0.540 0.216 0.206 −0.090 0.224 −0.674 0.556 0.226 0.208
Lives in one of the district with policy change −0.053 0.198 0.872 0.701 0.000 0.204 −0.131 0.214 0.830 0.821 0.203 0.220
DID estimator 0.117 0.261 1.534** 0.660 −0.321 0.245 0.125 0.263 1.568** 0.671 −0.337 0.247
Parity (ref = 1)
 2–4 0.701*** 0.202 −0.111 0.473 −0.552*** 0.190 0.744*** 0.202 −0.159 0.470 −0.581*** 0.190
 5+ 0.860*** 0.212 0.438 0.519 −0.783*** 0.202 0.915*** 0.213 0.395 0.516 −0.811*** 0.202
ANC utilisation
 Four or more visits −0.313** 0.123 0.221 0.338 0.243** 0.120 −0.329*** 0.124 0.194 0.338 0.262** 0.120
Religion (ref = Catholic)
 Protestant 0.020 0.162 0.000 0.441 −0.071 0.158 0.006 0.161 −0.077 0.438 −0.056 0.157
 Other 0.708 0.794 2.961* 1.554 −0.770 0.729 0.675 0.787 3.098** 1.534 −0.831 0.726
Household childcare burden
 Number of children under five in HH 0.067 0.070 0.094 0.195 −0.069 0.068 0.059 0.071 0.091 0.195 −0.063 0.069
Woman’s employment status (ref = unemployed)
 Employed −0.327*** 0.126 0.782** 0.344 0.179 0.121 −0.328*** 0.126 0.710** 0.343 0.190 0.121
Woman’s education (ref = no education)
 Primary −0.494*** 0.177 −0.038 0.604 0.522*** 0.178 −0.492*** 0.177 0.039 0.601 0.533*** 0.178
 Secondary and above −0.744*** 0.234 0.308 0.719 0.594*** 0.229 −0.734*** 0.234 0.348 0.718 0.601*** 0.229
Partner’s education (ref = no education)
 Primary 0.103 0.219 −0.867 0.646 −0.010 0.218 0.142 0.218 −0.926 0.635 −0.041 0.217
 Secondary and above 0.021 0.240 −1.241* 0.689 0.060 0.238 0.087 0.240 −1.229* 0.677 0.016 0.238
 Index for actual quality of ANC received 0.397*** 0.060 −0.340* 0.205 −0.325*** 0.059 0.367*** 0.060 −0.375* 0.204 −0.299*** 0.058
Household wealth (ref = poorest)
 Middle −0.325** 0.137 −0.268 0.462 0.347** 0.140 −0.206 0.143 −0.239 0.474 0.260* 0.144
 Rich −2.615*** 0.300 0.970 0.798 1.917*** 0.270 −1.887*** 0.377 1.399 0.996 1.146*** 0.336
Duration of residence (ref = previous res, rural)
 0–4 (previous residence, urban) −0.207 0.246 0.566 0.660 −0.026 0.225 −0.210 0.248 0.620 0.658 −0.059 0.225
 5+ 0.413*** 0.144 1.087** 0.552 −0.501*** 0.143 0.403*** 0.144 1.132** 0.553 −0.505*** 0.143
Community level variables
 Area type (ref = rural)
  Urban        −1.004*** 0.242 −0.660 0.852 1.032*** 0.247
  Material deprivation index        −0.034 0.652 3.382 2.464 −0.530 0.687
  Distance to nearest facility        0.208** 0.095 0.040 0.297 −0.175* 0.096
  Density of health facilities        −0.024* 0.013 0.035 0.050 0.023 0.014
  Prenatal care uptake        −0.189 0.266 2.531*** 0.884 −0.197 0.270
  TBA per 1000 of pop.        0.000 0.001 −0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001
  Proportion of drugs available        0.992*** 0.311 0.431 1.117 −0.914*** 0.327
  Constant 0.165 0.393 −6.224*** 1.399 −0.180 0.393 0.139 1.004 −15.704*** 3.764 1.054 1.033
  Rho 0.122   0.674   0.18   0.097   0.625   0.146  
  LR test (Chi2 value) 25.28***   94.1***   54.3***   18.01***   64.3   38.5***  
  Log likelihood −1010.1   −261.5   −1126.9   −985.67   −249.21   −1099.34  
  AIC 2062.2   564.9   2295.8   2027.33   554.41   2254.68  
  BIC 2178.9   669.7   2413.5   2182.81   694.04   2411.59  
  Observations 1912   1086   2013   1906   1082   2006  
  1. * Significant difference at 0.05
  2. ** Significant difference at 0.01
  3. *** Significant difference at 0.001