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Table 2 Summary of study results including the outcome of each study in relation to the aims of this review

From: Does a PBL-based medical curriculum predispose training in specific career paths? A systematic review of the literature

Reference (year) Outcome measures Results summarised Does PBL make a student more likely to specialise in a particular career? P value
Ford et al. [4] Pathology residency program No significant difference between PBL/non-PBL groups for choosing a career in pathology No
Kaufman et al. [14] Future specialty choice PBL students who were interested in family medicine at medical school retained this interest at graduation more than Non-PBL students (42 vs 29%). By graduation 39% of PBL students switched career preference to primary care vs 14% of non-PBL students. Retention of interest in other specialties showed no significant difference between programs Yes Maintained family practice as choice: 0.05 switched to family practice: 0.05
Matsui et al. [9] Specialty choice 23.7% of physicians who underwent a PBL curriculum (PBL +) were working in primary care or community care vs 31.4% of non-PBL (PBL −) physicians. 61.6% of PBL + physicians were working in ‘specialist fields’ vs 61.4% of PBL − physicians. 14.7% of PBL + physicians were working in ‘other disciplines’a vs 7.1% of PBL − physicians No
Mennin et al. [17] Family practice specialty 79% of physicians from a PBL curriculum were working in primary care or a mixture of primary care/non-primary care vs 67% from a non-PBL curriculum No 0.43
Moore et al. [15] Specialty choice 58% of physicians from PBL curriculum worked in primary care vs 45% of Non-PBL physicians although this is not a significant difference No >0.05
Moore-west et al. [16] Residency choice Significantly increased numbers of graduates from PBL curriculum chose a primary care residency Yes 0.025
Pearson et al. [18] Specialty choice 57.1% of physicians from a PBL curriculum were working in primary care or psychiatry vs 44.7% of non-PBL physicians Yes 0.0001
Peters et al. [10] Specialty choice 40% of physicians from a PBL curriculum were working in primary care or psychiatry vs 18% of non-PBL physicians Yes <0.05
Tolnai et al. [20] Family practice specialty 45.5% of physicians from a PBL curriculum were working in primary care vs 56.4% of physicians from a non-PBL curriculum No 0.05
Wesnes et al. [11] General practice specialty Curriculum type (PBL vs Non-PBL) was not significantly associated with a primary care career choice No >0.05
Woodward et al. [19] Specialty choice Primary care career choice similar in PBL vs non-PBL curriculum. Graduates from PBL curriculum went on to hold a greater number certificates in family medicine No
  1. aPBL schools were defined as such following interviews with representatives from each of Canada’s 13 english-language medical schools