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Table 1 Techniques used to measure quantity of Leptospira in urine

From: Meta-analysis to estimate the load of Leptospira excreted in urine: beyond rats as important sources of transmission in low-income rural communities

Target Gene Leptospira cladea Method lLoDb Reference
All Leptospira species Darkfield microscopy Semiquantitative Nally et al. [45]; Monahan et al. [46]
Non identified Pathogenic clade Conventional PCR Semiquantitative Gerritsen et al. [47, 48]
Pathogenic clade Slot blot -Scanning laser densitometry Semiquantitative Zuerner et al. [49]
16S rrna Pathogenic clade
Intermediate clade
TaqMan PCR 10 cells/mL of urine Smyth et al. [50, 51]
lipl32 Pathogenic clade TaqMan PCR 101 to 102 cells/mL of urine Sttodard et al. [52]
lipl32 Pathogenic clade TaqMan PCR 3GEq/4.5 μL of extracted DNA Rojas et al. [32]
lipl32 Pathogenic clade TaqMan PCR 6 Geq/5 μL of extracted DNA Villumsen et al. [53]
gyrB Pathogenic clade SYTO9 PCR 103 cells/mL Subharat et al. [54]
  1. a Leptospira species or clade as designated according to Levett [17]
  2. bLowest limit of detection as reported by authors