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Table 2 Potential risk/indicator factors for animal level brucellosis seropositivity on the basis of univariate analysis

From: Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in the Potohar Plateau, Pakistan

Factors Levels Animals examined Animals positive cattle/buffaloes (total  % and 95% CI) True prevalence (95% CI) P value
Body condition Healthy 2152 64/63 (5.9: 4.9–7.0) 9.3 (7.7–10.9) 0.443
Medium 323 15/11 (8.0: 5.3–11.6) 12.7 (8.0–17.4)  
Weak 234 8/9 (7.3: 4.3–11.4) 11.4 (6.2–16.7)  
Sex Female 2659 81/77 (5.9: 5.1–6.9) 9.4 (7.9–10.8) <0.001
Male 50 6/6 (24.0: 13.1–38.2) 37.8 (19.2–56.5)  
Urbanicity Rural 1424 46/36 (5.8: 4.6–7.1) 9.1 (7.2–11.0) 0.9624
Urban 1285 41/47 (6.8: 5.5–8.4) 10.8 (8.6–13.0)  
Age Young 165 3/4 (4.2: 1.7–8.5) 6.7 (1.8–11.5) 0.129
Adult 2544 84/79 (6.4: 5.5–7.4) 10.1 (8.6–11.6)  
Animal species Cattle 1247 87 (6.9: 5.6–8.5) 11.0 (8.8–13.2) 0.036
Buffaloes 1462 83 (5.7: 4.5–7.0) 8.9 (7.1–10.8)  
Stock replacement Self-reared 633 27/21 (7.6: 5.6–9.9) 11.9 (8.7–15.2) 0.012
Purchased 2076 60/62 (5.9: 4.9–7.0) 9.3 (7.7–10.9)  
District/territory ICT 594 38/23 (10.3: 7.9–13.0) 16.2 (12.3–20.0) 0.164
Rawalpindi 1052 23/25 (4.6: 3.4–6.0) 7.2 (5.2–9.2)  
Attock 1063 26/35 (5.7: 4.4–7.3) 9.0 (6.8–11.2)  
Sampling sites Ahmadal 251 8/13 (8.4: 5.3–12.5) 13.2 (7.7–18.6)  
Attock 373 11/7 (4.8: 2.9–7.5) 7.6 (4.2–11.0)  
Chak Shahzad 260 28/11 (15.0: 10.9–19.9) 23.6 (16.8–30.5)  
Chountra 344 7/12 (5.5: 3.4–8.5) 8.6 (4.9–12.5)  
Kahuta 309 7/5 (3.9: 2.0–6.7) 6.1 (2.7–9.5)  
Kallar 399 9/8 (4.3: 2.5–6.7) 6.7 (3.5–9.8)  
Kherimurat 439 7/15 (5.0: 3.2–7.5) 7.9 (4.7–11.1)  
Rawat 334 10/12 (6.6: 4.2–9.8) 10.4 (6.2–14.6)