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Table 3 Potential risk/indicator factors for herd level brucellosis seropositivity based on univariate analysis

From: Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in the Potohar Plateau, Pakistan

Factors Levels Herds examined (number positive) Apparent prevalence (95% CI) True prevalence (95% CI) P value
Urbanicity Rural 140 (20) 14.3 (8.9–21.2) 22.5 (13.4–31.7) 0.747
Urban 113 (27) 23.9 (16.4–32.8) 37.7 (25.2–50.1)  
Presence of animals with metritis No 241 (42) 17.4 (12.9–22.8) 27.4 (19.9–35.0) 0.057
Yes 12 (5) 41.7 (15.2–72.3) 65.7 (21.7–100)  
Abortion in third trimester No 243 (38) 15.6 (11.3–20.8) 24.6 (17.4–31.8) <0.001
Yes 10 (9) 90.0 (55.5–99.7) 100  
Herd size Small 134 (42) 31.3 (23.6–39.9) 49.4 (37.0–61.79) <0.001
Large 119 (5) 4.2 (1.4–9.5) 6.6 (0.9–12.3)  
Insemination method Natural 113 (24) 21.2 (14.1–29.9) 33.5 (21.5–45.3) <0.001
Artificial 101 (3) 3.0 (0.6–8.4) 4.6 (0.0–9.9)  
Both 39 (20) 51.3 (34.8–67.6) 80.8 (56.1–100)  
Districts/territory ICT 55 (11) 20.0 (10.4–33.0) 31.5 (14.9–48.2) 0.440
Rawalpindi 112 (17) 15.2 (9.1–23.2) 23.9 (13.4–34.4)  
Attock 86 (19) 22.1 (13.9–32.3) 34.8 (21.0–48.7)  
Sampling sites Ahmadal 21 (4) 19.1 (5.4–41.9) 30.0 (3.5–56.5)  
Attock 31 (7) 22.6 (9.6–41.1) 35.6 (12.4–58.8)  
Chak Shahzad 10 (5) 50.0 (18.7–81.3) 78.8 (30.0–100)  
Chountra 42 (7) 16.7 (7.0–31.4) 26.3 (8.5–44.0)  
Kahuta 27 (3) 11.1 (2.4–29.2) 17.5 (0–36.2)  
Kallar 43 (7) 16.3 (6.8–30.7) 25.7 (8.3–43.1)  
Kherimurat 34 (8) 23.5 (10.7–41.2) 37.1 (14.6–59.6)  
Rawat 45 (6) 13.3 (5.1–26.8) 21.0 (5.4–36.7)