Skip to main content

Table 3 Potential risk/indicator factors for herd level brucellosis seropositivity based on univariate analysis

From: Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in the Potohar Plateau, Pakistan

Factors

Levels

Herds examined (number positive)

Apparent prevalence (95% CI)

True prevalence (95% CI)

P value

Urbanicity

Rural

140 (20)

14.3 (8.9–21.2)

22.5 (13.4–31.7)

0.747

Urban

113 (27)

23.9 (16.4–32.8)

37.7 (25.2–50.1)

 

Presence of animals with metritis

No

241 (42)

17.4 (12.9–22.8)

27.4 (19.9–35.0)

0.057

Yes

12 (5)

41.7 (15.2–72.3)

65.7 (21.7–100)

 

Abortion in third trimester

No

243 (38)

15.6 (11.3–20.8)

24.6 (17.4–31.8)

<0.001

Yes

10 (9)

90.0 (55.5–99.7)

100

 

Herd size

Small

134 (42)

31.3 (23.6–39.9)

49.4 (37.0–61.79)

<0.001

Large

119 (5)

4.2 (1.4–9.5)

6.6 (0.9–12.3)

 

Insemination method

Natural

113 (24)

21.2 (14.1–29.9)

33.5 (21.5–45.3)

<0.001

Artificial

101 (3)

3.0 (0.6–8.4)

4.6 (0.0–9.9)

 

Both

39 (20)

51.3 (34.8–67.6)

80.8 (56.1–100)

 

Districts/territory

ICT

55 (11)

20.0 (10.4–33.0)

31.5 (14.9–48.2)

0.440

Rawalpindi

112 (17)

15.2 (9.1–23.2)

23.9 (13.4–34.4)

 

Attock

86 (19)

22.1 (13.9–32.3)

34.8 (21.0–48.7)

 

Sampling sites

Ahmadal

21 (4)

19.1 (5.4–41.9)

30.0 (3.5–56.5)

 

Attock

31 (7)

22.6 (9.6–41.1)

35.6 (12.4–58.8)

 

Chak Shahzad

10 (5)

50.0 (18.7–81.3)

78.8 (30.0–100)

 

Chountra

42 (7)

16.7 (7.0–31.4)

26.3 (8.5–44.0)

 

Kahuta

27 (3)

11.1 (2.4–29.2)

17.5 (0–36.2)

 

Kallar

43 (7)

16.3 (6.8–30.7)

25.7 (8.3–43.1)

 

Kherimurat

34 (8)

23.5 (10.7–41.2)

37.1 (14.6–59.6)

 

Rawat

45 (6)

13.3 (5.1–26.8)

21.0 (5.4–36.7)