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Table 1 Baseline parameters

From: RANTES levels in peripheral blood, CSF and contused brain tissue as a marker for outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients

Parameters Severe head injury (n = 30) Moderate/mild head injury (n = 30) Healthy control (n = 15) p value Bonferroni’s correction
Age 37.5 ± 13.53 36.6 ± 11.49 30.8 ± 6.64 0.17
Sexa
 Male 25 (83.33) 28 (93.33) 12 (80.0) 0.40
 Female 5 (16.67) 2 (6.67) 3 (20.0)
Mode of injurya
 RTA 24 (80.0) 20 (66.67) 0.56  
 Fall 4 (13.33) 7 (23.33)
 Miscellaneous 2 (6.67) 3 (10.0)
ICU Length of stayb 4 (0–25) 1 (0–12) 0.0007  
Hospital length of stayb 6.5 (1–181) 3 (1–61) 0.14  
Systolic BP 123.9 ± 32.10 124.5 ± 18.26 0.93  
Time elapsed from injury to sampling (h)b 9 (1–24) 6 (1–20) 0.11  
Urea (meq/l) 29.5 ± 11.18 27.3 ± 9.77 26.3 ± 5.96 0.52  
Creatinine (meq/l) 0.9 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.22 0.22  
Sodium (meq/l) 140.7 ± 4.8 140.0 ± 4.04 141.2 ± 2.85 0.63  
Potassium (meq/l) 3.9 ± 0.68 3.8 ± 0.56 4.4 ± 0.42 0.01 SHI versus HC 0.04
MHI versus HC 0.01
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 12.1 ± 3.49 11.6 ± 1.76 13.4 ± 1.69 0.13  
Total leukocyte count (x/cu mm)b 15,600 (4400–25,700) 10,500 (850–24,800) 6800 (4300–10,200) 0.0001  
Platelet (/cu mm)b 153 (56–338) 150 (67–303) 202 (120–340) 0.10  
Prothrombin time (s) 16.5 ± 4.06 15.2 ± 1.99 15.2 ± 1.84 0.19  
Activated partial thrombin time (s) 29.8 ± 7.51 27.7 ± 4.06 31.5 ± 6.24 0.13  
INR 1.3 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 0.01 0.12  
Emergency surgery
 Yes 16 10   
 No 14 20
Sepsis
 Yes 9 (30) 4 (13.3)    
 No 21 (70) 26 (86.7)
Outcomea
Alive 14 (46.67) 26 (89.66) 0.001  
Dead 16 (53.33) 3 (10.34)
Glasgow outcome score (GOS)a
 Good recovery 0 (0.00) 7 (25)   <0.001  
 Moderate disability 5 (17.86) 18 (64.29)
 Severe disability 6 (21.43) 0 (0.00)
 Persistent vegetative 0 0 (0.00)
 Death 16 (57.14) 3 (10.71)
  1. One-way ANOVA applied; data represented as mean ± SD
  2. SHI severe head injury, MHI moderate and mild head injury, HC healthy control
  3. aFrequency (%)
  4. bMedian (min–max)