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Table 2 Testing the proportional hazard assumption using scaled Schoenfeld residuals

From: Application of random survival forests in understanding the determinants of under-five child mortality in Uganda in the presence of covariates that satisfy the proportional and non-proportional hazards assumption

Covariates χ2 (df) p-value
Mother’s education
 Illiterate 1  
 Primary 4.83 0.03
 Secondary and higher 7.52 <0.01
 GLOBAL 11.25 \({<0.01}\)
Father’s education
 Illiterate 1  
 Primary 0.51 0.48
 Secondary and higher 0.86 0.35
 GLOBAL 1.12 0.57
Sex of the child
 Male 1  
 Female 1.99 0.16
Total number of children ever born
 1 child 1  
 2 child 5.39 0.02
 3 child 0.44 0.51
 4+ child 0.26 0.61
 GLOBAL 14.61 \({<}0.01\)
Type of place of residence
 Rural 1  
 Urban 8.43 \({<}0.01\)
Wealth index
 Poorest 1  
 Poorer 0.17 0.7
 Middle 0.00 0.98
 Richer 6.94 \({<}0.01\)
 Richest 2.26 0.13
 GLOBAL 9.29 0.05
Birth order
 1st 1  
 2nd 0.28 0.59
 3rd 6.69 \({<}0.01\)
 4th+ 2.64 0.10
 GLOBAL 8.46 0.04
Age at first birth
 <20 1  
 20–29 0.10 0.75
 30+ 0.41 0.52
 GLOBAL 0.54 0.76
Previous birth interval (years) 1  
 <2 Ref  
 2 1.83 0.18
 3 0.97 0.32
 4+ 2.53 0.11
 GLOBAL 8.69 0.03
Number of births in the past 1 year
 No birth 1  
 1 birth 0.7 0.40
 2 1.24 0.27
 GLOBAL 1.81 0.40
Number of births in the last 5 years
 1 births 1  
 2 births 0.11 0.75
 3 births 0.03 0.86
 4+ 5.00 0.03
 GLOBAL 5.85 0.12
Mother’s age (years)
 <20 1  
 20–29 0.16 0.69
 30–39 0.63 0.43
 40+ 0.08 0.78
 GLOBAL 5.58 0.13
Sex of household head
 Male 1  
 Female 0.07 0.79
Source of drinking water
 Piped water 1  
 Borehole 0.17 0.68
 Well water 0.12 0.73
Surface/pond/lake/rain/etc 2.58 0.11
 Others 1.82 0.18
 GLOBAL 6.55 0.16
Mother’s occupation
 Not working 1  
 Sales and Services 0.202 0.65
 Agriculture 6.88 \({<}0.01\)
 GLOBAL 14.41 \({<}0.01\)
Type of birth
 Single birth 1  
 Multiple births 13 \({<}0.01\)
Religion
 Catholic 1  
 Muslim 0.009 0.92
 Other Christians 0.73 0.39
 Others 1.59 0.21
 GLOBAL 2.21 0.53