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Table 3 Factors associated with chronic periodontitis (backward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis)

From: Risk factors for chronic periodontitis in Sri Lankan adults: a population based case–control study

Variable Unadjusted p value Adjusted p value
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Sex
 Female 1.00    1.00   
 Male 2.42 1.95–3.00 <0.001 1.97 1.47–2.65 <0.001
Age group (years)
 30–44 1.00    1.00   
 45–60 4.29 3.41–5.40 <0.001 4.19 3.23–5.44 <0.001
Ethnicity
 Sinhala 1.00    1.00   
 Tamil 0.99 0.71–1.38 0.94 0.77 0.51–1.14 0.19
 Muslim 1.69 1.31–2.51 0.01 1.63 1.03–2.58 0.04
Level of education (years)
 >12 1.00    1.00   
 11–12 1.35 0.86–2.13 0.20 1.68 1.00–2.83 0.05
 6–10 2.55 1.60–4.07 <0.001 2.80 1.63–4.81 <0.001
 0–5 3.12 1.79–5.43 <0.001 2.39 1.23–4.61 0.01
Monthly household income (Rupees)
 ≤20,000 1.00      
 >20,000 1.07 0.85–1.35 0.58    
Current occupation
 Low category 1.00      
 High category 0.65 0.50–0.84 0.001    
Mode of tooth cleaning
 Brush 1.00    1.00   
 Finger 7.31 2.17–24.63 0.001 4.30 1.05–17.61 0.04
Material used for tooth cleaning
 Toothpaste 1.00      
 Others 3.67 1.66–8.11 0.001    
Tooth cleaning frequency
 Once/day 1.00      
 >once/day 0.80 0.60–1.06 0.11    
Smoking
 Never 1.00    1.00   
 Former 2.48 1.69–3.65 <0.001 1.21 0.76–1.93 0.43
 Current 4.38 3.18–6.03 <0.001 3.27 2.21–4.85 <0.001
 Smoking in pack-years 1.15 1.10–1.20 <0.001    
Betel quid chewing
 No 1.00    1.00   
 Current chewer 3.17 2.17–4.63 <0.001 2.05 1.34–3.14 0.001
Alcohol use
 Never 1.00      
 Ever 2.21 1.79–2.74 <0.001    
Alcohol × smoking
 Never/never 1.00      
 Ever/former smoker 2.37 1.61–3.50 <0.001    
 Ever/current smoker 4.02 2.89–5.60 <0.001    
Alcohol × betel chewing × smoking
 Never/never/never 1.00      
 Ever alcohol user × current chewer × former smoker 3.43 1.36–8.64 0.009    
 Ever alcohol user × current chewer × current smoker 4.45 2.13–9.30 <0.001    
Self-reported diabetes
 No 1.00    1.00   
 Yes 2.15 1.69–3.46 <0.001 1.55 1.01–2.36 0.04
Self-reported hypertension
 No 1.00    1.00   
 Yes 2.58 1.86–3.57 <0.001 1.77 1.20–2.60 0.004
Overweight/obese
 No 1.00      
 Yes 0.83 0.67–1.03 0.09    
Abdominal obesity
 No 1.00      
 Yes 1.01 0.82–1.25 0.94