Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Mean dental environmental stress (DES) questionnaire scores and comparison among debt load and debt interest payment

From: Perceived causes of stress among a group of western Canadian dental students

Category Stressor DES by debt load Sig. level DES by debt interest payment Sig. level
≤ $100,000 > $100,000 $0–500 > $500
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Social-related stress Living away from home 1.34 (1.32) 0.67 (0.95) 0.008* 0.90 (1.14) 1.00 (1.19) 0.722
Accommodations not being conducive for studying 1.77 (1.55) 1.81 (1.62) 0.973 1.81 (1.60) 1.71 (1.54) 0.880
Difficulty in making friends 0.65 (0.85) 0.60 (0.93) 0.654 0.64 (0.94) 0.53 (0.64) 0.947
Romantic relationships 1.82 (1.53) 1.51 (1.42) 0.310 1.68 (1.45) 1.43 (1.55) 0.460
Lack of time for relaxation 3.45 (1.31) 3.38 (1.36) 0.863 3.39 (1.35) 3.53 (1.25) 0.763
Lack of holiday time compared to other students 2.76 (1.34) 2.87 (1.44) 0.745 2.75 (1.40) 3.20 (1.37) 0.291
Social demands-family 1.17 (1.01) 1.73 (1.48) 0.119 1.32 (1.14) 2.33 (1.80) 0.043*
Social demands-friends 1.54 (1.12) 1.73 (1.25) 0.608 1.55 (1.12) 2.13 (1.46) 0.117
Personal physical health 1.92 (1.67) 2.02 (1.62) 0.728 1.84 (1.61) 2.67 (1.59) 0.058
Physical health of others-significant other/family 1.19 (1.26) 1.83 (1.47) 0.047* 1.41 (1.39) 2.00 (1.36) 0.099
Financial-related stress Financial responsibilities-living expenses 1.68 (1.32) 2.77 (1.48) 0.001* 2.17 (1.50) 3.13 (1.30) 0.013*
Financial responsibilities-disposable income 1.68 (1.53) 2.55 (1.54) 0.014* 1.98 (1.57) 3.07 (1.39) 0.011*
Financial responsibilities-tuition costs 3.00 (1.47) 3.52 (1.43) 0.097 3.24 (1.47) 3.60 (1.45) 0.360
Financial responsibilities-transportation 1.51 (1.28) 1.73 (1.27) 0.363 1.47 (1.15) 2.40 (1.55) 0.024*
Financial responsibilities-size of current debt load 2.47 (1.78) 3.77 (1.23) 0.001* 3.07 (1.62) 4.13 (1.12) 0.015*
Financial responsibilities-size of future debt load 2.76 (1.81) 3.75 (1.33) 0.011* 3.20 (1.63) 4.13 (1.25) 0.030*
Financial responsibilities-interest payments on debt 2.18 (1.59) 3.25 (1.49) 0.004* 2.59 (1.60) 3.93 (1.16) 0.030*
Clinical-related stress Concern about manual dexterity and clinical skills 1.82 (1.27) 1.58 (1.49) 0.226 1.79 (1.44) 1.19 (1.11) 0.135
Transition from pre-clinical to clinical studies 2.49 (1.50) 2.42 (1.42) 0.880 2.52 (1.41) 2.13 (1.59) 0.227
Completing clinical requirements 2.68 (1.25) 2.98 (1.60) 0.294 2.89 (1.38) 2.75 (1.84) 0.811
Clinical grading 2.23 (1.19) 2.44 (1.46) 0.573 2.31 (1.26) 2.56 (1.75) 0.665
Differences in opinions of clinical faculty and staff regarding clinical decision-making and treatment 2.82 (1.45) 2.94 (1.38) 0.800 2.91 (1.40) 2.81 (1.42) 0.859
Supply of patients 2.96 (1.45) 2.80 (1.50) 0.662 2.90 (1.40) 2.73 (1.79) 0.797
Patient communication and management 2.79 (1.52) 1.98 (1.36) 0.022* 2.34 (1.48) 2.00 (1.41) 0.401
Confidence in own clinical decision-making 2.00 (1.34) 1.64 (0.98) 0.286 1.82 (1.16) 1.60 (1.06) 0.757
Adequacy of clinical supervision 2.00 (1.49) 2.08 (1.33) 0.703 2.11 (1.38) 1.80 (1.42) 0.367
Patients attending scheduled appointments 2.68 (1.72) 2.50 (1.56) 0.609 2.61 (1.64) 2.40 (1.55) 0.661
Occupational/health hazards 1.57 (1.52) 1.32 (1.28) 0.616 1.50 (1.41) 1.06 (1.18) 0.246
Academic-related stress Conducive teaching environment 2.08 (1.34) 2.48 (1.39) 0.173 2.30 (1.42) 2.40 (1.18) 0.563
Criticism of academic and/or clinical work 2.92 (1.40) 2.66 (1.38) 0.399 2.84 (1.41) 2.38 (1.19) 0.267
Approachability of faculty/staff 1.87 (1.38) 2.37 (1.49) 0.148 2.12 (1.47) 2.31 (1.45) 0.604
Communication with faculty/staff 1.95 (1.45) 2.50 (1.36) 0.089 2.27 (1.45) 2.25 (1.29) 0.952
Rules/regulations of College 2.16 (1.46) 2.94 (1.66) 0.031* 2.58 (1.58) 2.75 (1.84) 0.796
Expectation versus reality of dental school 2.95 (1.47) 3.50 (1.49) 0.070 3.22 (1.48) 3.50 (1.59) 0.430
Amount of course work 3.34 (1.12) 3.25 (1.44) 0.964 3.32 (1.23) 3.13 (1.67) 0.855
Difficulty of course work 2.87 (1.23) 2.53 (1.39) 0.276 2.68 (1.29) 2.63 (1.59) 0.957
Time available for learning 3.53 (1.25) 3.17 (1.35) 0.219 3.43 (1.25) 2.81 (1.51) 0.136
Fear of not being able to catch up if falling behind in course work 3.16 (1.40) 2.94 (1.49) 0.536 3.11 (1.38) 2.69 (1.74) 0.421
Fear of failing a course or year 3.79 (1.28) 3.58 (1.65) 0.898 3.74 (1.45) 3.31 (1.70) 0.285
Competition for grades 2.00 (1.49) 1.94 (1.67) 0.786 1.95 (1.58) 2.06 (1.69) 0.809
Uncertainty about future dental career 1.76 (1.38) 2.14 (1.49) 0.250 1.92 (1.41) 2.25 (1.65) 0.475
Examinations 2.95 (1.35) 3.12 (1.44) 0.494 3.11 (1.35) 2.75 (1.61) 0.453
Lack of input into dental college decision-making 2.00 (1.45) 2.85 (1.64) 0.016* 2.51 (1.63) 2.44 (1.55) 0.957
Clinical time allotted in curriculum 2.36 (1.19) 2.18 (1.41) 0.448 2.18 (1.28) 2.60 (1.50) 0.302
The language of teaching 1.00 (1.09) 1.08 (1.15) 0.761 0.97 (1.14) 1.38 (1.02) 0.097
Knowledge transfer of information, methods and materials 1.59 (1.17) 1.67 (1.26) 0.850 1.60 (1.19) 1.81 (1.38) 0.616
The amount of material 2.82 (1.25) 2.18 (1.09) 0.161 2.64 (1.36) 2.44 (1.71) 0.479
The difficulty of material 2.18 (1.09) 1.81 (1.27) 0.071 1.93 (1.13) 2.13 (1.54) 0.842
Reference and information resources 1.56 (1.34) 1.20 (1.02) 0.247 1.32 (1.19) 1.44 (1.09) 0.563
  1. * Statistically significant at p < 0.05