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Table 2 Outcome measures for each assessment point

From: Does cognitive behavioral therapy alter mental defeat and cognitive flexibility in patients with panic disorder?

Measures Pre-CBT Mid-CBT Post-CBT Statistic Effect size (Cohen’s d) Post hoc
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Pre- to mid-CBT Mid- to post-CBT Pre- to post-CBT
Mental Defeat Scale
 MDS 22.2 (16.6) 14.5 (16.0) 12.4 (12.8) F(2, 28) = 7.54, p < .01 .47 .15 .66 pre > mid pre > post
Cognitive flexibility
 CFS 42.8 (9.7) 49.4 (7.8) 49.5 (5.9) F(2, 28) = 12.56, p < .01 .75 .02 .83 pre < mid pre < post
Associated psychopathology
 PDSS-SR 12.1 (4.0) 7.5 (3.3) 5.5 (3.5) F(2, 28) = 19.04, p < .01 1.26 .59 1.77 pre > mid pre > post
 PHQ-9 8.0 (3.2) 5.4 (2.5) 5.2 (3.1) F(2, 28) = 6.48, p < .01 .91 .07 .89 pre > mid pre > post
  1. CBT Cognitive behavioral therapy, CFS Cognitive Flexibility Scale, MDS Mental Defeat Scale, PDSS-SR Panic Disorder Severity Scale-Self Report, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9