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Table 1 ARYS and VIDUS participant characteristics stratified by trajectory of nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) (n = 1345)

From: Nonmedical prescription opioid use and illegal drug use: initiation trajectory and related risks among people who use illegal drugs in Vancouver, Canada

Characteristic ARYS (n = 512) VIDUS (n = 833)
Never NMPOU (%) (n = 60) NMPOU first (%) (n = 160) Illegal drugs first (%) (n = 292) Never NMPOU (%) (n = 83) NMPOU first (%) (n = 276) Illegal drugs first (%) (n = 474)
Age per year older [M (IQR)] 26 (22–28) 24 (21–26) 24 (22–27) 49 (42–56) 48 (38–54) 47 (37–54)
Male gendera 37 (61.7) 115 (71.9) 182 (62.3) 51 (61.4) 169 (61.2) 310 (65.4)
Caucasian ancestrya 35 (58.3) 97 (60.6) 182 (62.3) 37 (44.6) 158 (57.2) 292 (61.6)
Homelessa 55 (91.7) 153 (95.6) 275 (94.2) 72 (86.7) 260 (94.2) 444 (93.7)
High school incompletiona 27 (45.0) 56 (35.0) 100 (34.2) 39 (47.0) 140 (50.7) 231 (48.7)
Daily heroin usea,b,c 5 (8.3) 45 (28.1) 89 (30.5) 10 (12.0) 77 (27.9) 125 (26.4)
Daily stimulant usea,b,c,d 22 (36.7) 43 (26.9) 102 (34.9) 21 (25.3) 82 (29.7) 139 (29.3)
Binge drug usea,b,c 21 (35.0) 90 (56.3) 181 (62.0) 22 (26.5) 101 (36.6) 175 (36.9)
$ spent on drugs/dayb,e 22 (36.7) 64 (40.0) 114 (39.0) 22 (26.5) 108 (39.1) 187 (39.5)
Non-fatal overdosea,c 27 (45.0) 90 (56.3) 169 (57.9) 34 (41.0) 177 (64.1) 325 (68.6)
Methadone treatmenta 7 (11.7) 42 (26.3) 87 (29.8) 39 (47.0) 218 (79.0) 374 (78.9)
Emergency room visita,b 23 (38.3) 58 (36.3) 131 (44.9) 16 (19.3) 82 (29.7) 151 (31.9)
Depression symptomsa 26 (43.3) 87 (54.4) 160 (54.8) 40 (48.2) 155 (56.2) 241 (50.8)
Childhood traumaa 35 (58.3) 97 (60.6) 195 (66.8) 48 (57.8) 183 (66.3) 313 (66.0)
Experience violencea,b 12 (20.0) 62 (38.8) 116 (39.7) 9 (10.8) 48 (17.4) 73 (15.4)
Incarcerationa 35 (58.3) 96 (60.0) 195 (66.8) 63 (75.9) 246 (89.1) 426 (89.9)
Regular employmenta,b 27 (45.0) 74 (46.3) 133 (45.5) 24 (28.9) 71 (25.7) 133 (28.1)
Drug dealinga,b 10 (16.7) 55 (34.4) 95 (32.5) 6 (7.2) 73 (26.4) 110 (23.2)
Sex worka 18 (30.0) 41 (25.6) 85 (29.1) 57 (68.7) 169 (61.2) 272 (57.4)
  1. aComparison is yes vs. no
  2. bRefers to activities, behaviours, and experiences in the last 6 months
  3. cIncludes injection and non-injection drug use
  4. dIncludes crack cocaine, cocaine, or crystal methamphetamine use
  5. eComparison is <median vs. ≥ median
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