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Table 2 Risk factor assessment for the acquisition of hMPV and hMPV/RSV co-infection

From: A case series on common cold to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children following human metapneumovirus infection in Sri Lanka

  hMPV (n = 8) hMPV/RSV co-infection (n = 6) OR (95% CI) p value
Duration of disease 6 ± 2.3 days 6 ± 2.2 days 0.2
Average hospital stays 5 ± 2 days 6 ± 2 days 0.3
Risk factors     
Malnutrition (Height-for-age z-score ≤ − 2) 2 2 1.1 (0.6–1.6) 0.3
Male sex 4 5 1.5 (0.9–1.9) 0.4
Low birth weight (< 2500 g) 2 2 1.1 (0.5–1.4) 0.4
Mode of delivery-LSCS 1 3 3.5 (2.2–4.8) 0.04*
Outdoor air pollution 3 2 1.2 (0.5–1.6) 0.6
Indoor air pollution 4 4 1.1 (0.6–1.5) 0.4
Passive smoking 3 4 1.3 (0.7–1.8) 0.4
Non-exclusive breastfeeding (during the first 4 months of life) 1 1 1.1 (0.5–1.4) 0.3
Lack of immunization (within the first 12 months of life) 0 0 0 0.0
Over crowding 4 4 1.1 (0.6–1.5) 0.3
Concomitant conditions
 Congenital heart diseases 1 1 1.1 (0.6–1.5) 0.3
 Asthma 1 1 1.2 (0.7–1.8) 0.2
 Known Immunodeficiency 1 0 –**
 Epilepsy 1 0 –**
Mother’s experience as a caregiver 2 0.4
Mother’s education
 < grade 8 1 2 1.5 (0.6–1.9) 0.9
Day-care attendance 1 2 1.4 (0.7–1.8) 0.3
Trisomy 21 1 1 1.1 (0.7–1.4) 0.4
Birth order > 3 1 3 4.3 (3.2–5.6) 0.05*
  1. LSCS lower segment caesarian section
  2. * p < 0.05 was considered as significant
  3. ** Only one hMPV infected child and no children with RSV/hMPV co-infection were available for comparison