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Table 1 The Trypophobia Questionnaire and its Rasch-based psychometric properties

From: Rasch analysis of the Trypophobia Questionnaire

  Location (standard error) Infit mean-square (Zstd) Outfit mean-square (Zstd) First contrast loading Second contrast loading DIF contrast for sex DIF contrast for age
Feel freaked out − 0.50 (0.06) 1.07 (1.10) 1.08 (1.00) 0.55 − 0.17 0.14 0.00
Feel aversion, disgust or repulsion − 1.75 (0.05) 0.88 (− 2.10) 0.88 (− 1.80) 0.61 0.41 0.16 0.08
Feel uncomfortable or uneasy − 1.68 (0.05) 0.73 (− 4.80) 0.80 (− 3.10) 0.63 0.23 0.11 0.10
Feel like panicking or screaming 0.33 (0.07) 0.98 (− 0.20) 0.83 (− 1.70) 0.24 − 0.45 0.12 0.08
Feel anxious, full of dread or fearful − 0.52 (0.06) 0.87 (− 2.00) 0.84 (− 2.10) 0.46 − 0.31 0.10 0.00
Feel sick or nauseous 0.02 (0.06) 0.87 (− 1.90) 0.74 (− 3.10) − 0.13 − 0.24 0.00 0.06
Feel nervous (e.g., heart pounding, butterflies in stomach, sweating, stomachache, etc.) 0.05 (0.06) 0.92 (− 1.10) 0.87 (− 1.40) − 0.09 − 0.21 0.17 0.06
Feel like going crazy 0.00 (0.06) 0.82 (− 2.60) 0.79 (− 2.40) − 0.14 − 0.27 0.00 0.22
Have an urge to destroy the holes 0.97 (0.08) 2.16 (9.90) 2.32 (7.10) − 0.06 − 0.22 0.51 0.33
Feel itchiness 0.24 (0.06) 1.56 (6.60) 1.40 (3.60) − 0.16 0.18 0.22 0.20
Feel skin crawl − 0.90 (0.05) 0.86 (− 2.30) 0.82 (− 2.70) − 0.20 0.66 0.17 0.09
Have goosebumps − 0.83 (0.05) 0.96 (− 0.70) 0.93 (− 0.90) − 0.40 0.62 0.08 0.08
Feel like crying 1.96 (0.10) 1.57 (4.50) 0.89 (− 0.50) − 0.37 − 0.37 0.13 0.19
Vomit 1.40 (0.08) 1.08 (0.90) 0.77 (− 1.40) − 0.41 − 0.24 0.37 0.07
Get chills − 0.26 (0.06) 1.14 (2.10) 1.01 (0.10) − 0.43 0.35 0.05 0.10
Have trouble breathing 0.63 (0.07) 0.97 (− 0.40) 0.86 (− 1.20) − 0.27 − 0.37 0.07 0.21
Shiver 0.83 (0.07) 0.98 (− 0.20) 0.72 (− 2.40) − 0.47 − 0.16 0.22 0.11
  1. Differential item functioning contrasts were reported in absolute values. Zstd, z-standardized statistic; DIF, differential item functioning