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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the 671 elderly ambulatory patients

From: Effect of total exemption from medical service co-payments on potentially inappropriate medication use among elderly ambulatory patients in a single center in Japan: a retrospective cross-sectional study

Characteristics Total N = 671 Total exemption N = 62 Control N = 609 p valued
Age, mean ± SD 75.7 ± 7.5 71.3 ± 6.0 76.1 ± 7.5 < 0.001
Men, n (%) 342 (51.0) 42 (67.7) 300 (49.3) 0.01
Women, n (%) 329 (49.0) 20 (32.3) 309 (50.7) 0.01
CCI, mean ± SD 1.9 ± 1.7 2.4 ± 2.1 1.9 ± 1.7 0.04
Current smoker,a n (%) 77 (14.0) 25 (43.1) 52 (10.5) < 0.001
Regular drinker,b n (%) 128 (23.8) 18 (31.0) 110 (23.0) 0.19
Number of prescribers, mean ± SD 1.4 ± 0.7 1.6 ± 0.8 1.4 ± 0.7 0.08
Number of medications
 Total, mean ± SD 5.0 ± 3.0 6.2 ± 3.6 4.9 ± 2.9 0.01
 Five or more medications, n (%) 339 (50.5) 37 (59.7) 302 (49.6) 0.14
Past medical history, n (%)
 Myocardial infarction 40 (6.0) 3 (4.8) 37 (6.1) 1.00
 Heart failure 50 (7.5) 4 (6.5) 46 (7.6) 1.00
 Angina 58 (8.6) 8 (12.9) 50 (8.2) 0.23
 Atrial fibrillation 80 (11.9) 6 (9.7) 74 (12.2) 0.68
 Ischemic stroke 90 (13.4) 11 (17.7) 79 (13.0) 0.33
 Hemorrhagic strokec 12 (1.9) 0 (0.0) 13 (2.1) 0.62
 Peptic ulcer 126 (18.8) 17 (27.4) 109 (17.9) 0.09
 GERD 108 (16.1) 11 (17.7) 97 (15.9) 0.72
 NIDDM 212 (31.6) 25 (40.3) 187 (30.7) 0.15
 IDDM 18 (2.7) 0 (0.0) 18 (3.0) 0.40
 Hypertension 483 (72.0) 41 (66.1) 442 (72.6) 0.30
 Dyslipidemia 360 (53.7) 25 (40.3) 335 (50.0) 0.03
 Chronic kidney disease 234 (34.9) 14 (22.6) 220 (36.1) 0.04
 Rheumatic disease 34 (5.1) 4 (6.5) 30 (4.9) 0.54
 Asthma or COPD 81 (12.1) 12 (19.4) 69 (11.3) 0.10
 Dementia 43 (6.4) 2 (3.2) 41 (6.7) 0.42
 Active cancer 31 (4.6) 6 (9.7) 25 (4.1) 0.06
 Depression 34 (5.1) 4 (6.5) 30 (4.9) 0.54
 Osteoporosis 95 (14.2) 9 (14.5) 86 (14.1) 0.85
  1. aAmong 551 patients (58 patients in the total exemption group and 493 patients in the control group)
  2. bAmong 537 patients (58 patients in the total exemption group and 479 patients in the control group)
  3. cHemorrhagic stroke included cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage
  4. dComparison between the total exemption and control groups was performed using Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and Student’s t test for continuous variables