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Table 2 Prevalence and characteristics of potentially inappropriate medicationa use among the 671 elderly ambulatory patients

From: Effect of total exemption from medical service co-payments on potentially inappropriate medication use among elderly ambulatory patients in a single center in Japan: a retrospective cross-sectional study

  Total N = 671 Total exemption N = 62 Control N = 609 p valuec
Number of PIMs, mean ± SD 0.5 ± 0.8 0.9 ± 0.9 0.5 ± 0.8 0.002
Any PIMs, n (%) 253 (37.7) 34 (54.8) 219 (36.0) 0.01
Category of PIM, n (%)
 Benzodiazepines 109 (16.2) 17 (27.4) 92 (15.1) 0.02
 Proton-pump inhibitors 87 (13.0) 11 (17.7) 76 (12.5) 0.24
 Hypnoticsb 33 (4.9) 5 (8.1) 28 (4.6) 0.22
 NSAIDs 25 (3.7) 4 (6.5) 21 (3.4) 0.28
 Peripheral alpha-1 blockers 24 (3.6) 3 (4.8) 21 (3.4) 0.48
 Antidepressants 14 (2.1) 2 (3.2) 13 (2.1) 0.64
 Digoxin 7 (1.0) 2 (3.2) 5 (0.8) 0.13
 Antipsychotics 7 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 7 (1.1) 1.00
 Ticlopidine or dipyridamole 6 (0.9) 1 (1.6) 5 (0.8) 0.44
 First-generation antihistamines 4 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 4 (0.7) 1.00
 Others 26 (3.9) 3 (4.8) 23 (3.8) 0.73
  1. aPIM was defined based on the 2015 American Geriatric Society Beers Criteria
  2. bNon-benzodiazepine and benzodiazepine receptor agonist hypnotics
  3. cComparison between the total exemption and control groups was performed using Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and Student’s t-test for continuous variables