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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of determinants of improved and unimproved sanitation facilities used by households

From: Determinants of access to improved sanitation facilities in rural districts of southern Ghana: evidence from Dodowa Health and Demographic Surveillance Site

Characteristics of household head Unimproved n (%) Improved n (%) P value
Age group
 < 30 958 (89.70) 110 (10.30) < 0.001
 30–34 1473 (89.60) 171 (10.40)
 35–39 1795 (87.73) 251 (12.27)
 40–44 1779 (86.44) 279 (13.56)
 45–49 1562 (83.93) 299 (16.07)
 50–54 1514 (83.83) 292 (16.17)
 55–59 1172 (81.05) 274 (18.95)
 60–64 1057 (83.96) 202 (16.04)
 65–69 725 (81.55) 164 (18.45)
 70+ 2018 (88.66) 258 (11.34)
Sex
 Female 5883 (90.98) 583 (9.02) < 0.001
 Male 8170 (82.63) 1717 (17.37)
Ethnicity
 Ga-Dangme 10,741 (89.11) 1313 (10.89) < 0.001
 Akan 643 (63.85) 364 (36.15)
 Ewe 2029 (80.80) 482 (19.20)
 Northern 5,58 (82.80) 117 (17.33)
 Others 82 (77.36) 24 (22.64)
Marital status
 Single 1524 (86.00) 248 (14.00) < 0.001
 Divorced/separated 1151 (88.67) 147 (11.33)
 Married 4963 (81.27) 1144 (18.73)
 Cohabiting 4726 (89.05) 581 (10.95)
 Widowed 1689 (90.37) 581 (9.63)
Level of education
 No education 5216 (94.12) 326 (5.88) < 0.001
 Primary 2019 (92.23) 170 (7.77)
 Junior high/middle school 5032 (85.49) 854 (14.51)
 Senior high school and above 1786 (65.28) 950 (34.72)
Occupation
 Unemployment 925 (88.86) 116 (11.14) < 0.001
 Farmer 6022 (90.18) 656 (9.82)
 Artisan 2449 (83.96) 468 (16.04)
 Trader 2697 (90.29) 290 (9.71)
 Civil servant 612 (60.77) 395 (39.23)
 Fisherman 662 (83.06) 135 (16.94)
 Others 686 (74.08) 240 (25.92)
Household size
 Less than six 10,377 (86.14) 1670 (13.86) 0.213
 More than five 3676 (85.37) 630 (14.63)
Socioeconomic status
 Poorest 705 (99.44) 4 (0.56) < 0.001
 Poorer 2017 (97.25) 57 (2.75)
 Poor 3325 (94.11) 208 (5.89)
 Less poor 4334 (92.94) 329 (7.06)
 Least poor 3672 (68.33) 1702 (31.67)