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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted odd ratios of determinants of improved and unimproved sanitation facilities used by households

From: Determinants of access to improved sanitation facilities in rural districts of southern Ghana: evidence from Dodowa Health and Demographic Surveillance Site

Characteristics Unadjusted Adjusted
OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
Age group
 < 30 1.00    1.00   
 30–34 1.01 0.79–1.30 0.932 0.99 0.75–1.30 0.938
 35–39 1.22 0.96–1.54 0.104 1.21 0.93–1.58 0.157
 40–44 1.37 1.08–1.73 0.009 1.60 1.22–2.09 0.001
 45–49 1.67 1.32–2.10 < 0.001 2.01 1.53–2.62 < 0.001
 50–54 1.68 1.33–2.12 < 0.001 2.23 1.70–2.93 < 0.001
 55–59 2.04 1.61–2.58 < 0.001 2.73 2.06–3.60 < 0.001
 60–64 1.66 1.30–2.13 < 0.001 2.71 2.02–3.62 < 0.001
 65–69 1.97 1.52–2.56 < 0.001 3.32 2.44–4.51 < 0.001
 70+ 1.11 0.88–1.41 0.372 3.02 2.27–4.03 < 0.001
Sex
 Female 1.00    1.00   
 Male 2.12 1.92–2.34 < 0.001 1.23 1.05–1.38 0.008
Education
 No education 1.00    1.00   
 Primary 1.35 1.11–1.63 0.002 1.28 1.04–1.58 0.019
 Junior high/middle school 2.72 2.38–3.10 < 0.001 1.73 1.48–2.03 < 0.001
 Senior high school and above 8.51 7.42–9.76 < 0.001 3.28 2.74–3.91 < 0.001
Marital status
 Single 1.00    1.00   
 Divorced/separated 0.78 0.63–0.98 0.029 0.97 0.75–1.25 0.826
 Married 1.42 1.22–1.64 < 0.001 1.06 1.88–1.27 0.557
 Cohabiting 0.76 0.64–0.89 0.001 0.85 0.71–1.02 0.080
 Widowed 0.65 0.53–0.80 < 0.001 0.81 0.63–1.03 0.090
Household size
 Less than six 1.00      
 Six and above 1.06 0.96–1.18 0.213    
Occupation
 Unemployed 1.00    1.00   
 Farmer 0.87 0.70–1.07 0.187 0.93 0.73–1.17 0.526
 Artisan 1.52 1.23–1.89 < 0.001 1.05 0.82–1.35 0.691
 Trader 0.86 0.68–1.08 0.186 1.00 0.77–1.28 0.983
 Civil servant 5.15 4.09–6.48 < 0.001 1.57 1.21–2.05 0.001
 Fisherman 1.63 1.24–2.12 < 0.001 1.31 0.97–1.77 0.084
 Others 2.79 2.19–3.55 < 0.001 1.62 1.23–1.24 0.001
Socioeconomic status
 Poorest 1.00    1.00   
 Poorer 4.98 1.80–13.77 0.002 4.91 1.77–13.61 0.002
 Poor 11.03 4.09–29.75 < 0.001 10.66 3.94–28.81 < 0.001
 Less poor 13.38 4.98–35.98 < 0.001 11.40 4.23–30.74 < 0.001
 Least poor 81.69 30.52–218.64 < 0.001 52.44 19.52–140.89 < 0.001