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Fig. 1 | BMC Research Notes

Fig. 1

From: Intranasal administration of cationic liposomes enhanced granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor expression and this expression is dispensable for mucosal adjuvant activity

Fig. 1

mRNA expression of granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in nasal and spleen tissues (a) and antigen-specific production of GM-CSF in splenocytes from mice administered intranasally with OVA plus the liposomes. a Nasal tissue and spleens were collected 6 h after the last immunization. mRNA expression was measured using qPCR. b Spleens were collected 1 week after the last immunization, and then harvested splenocytes were cultured for 72 h in the presence of OVA (10 μg/mL). After culture, concentrations of GM-CSF were determined using ELISA. The values are the mean ± SD of technical duplicates from three biologically independent experiments. Significance was assessed using unpaired t-test with Welch’s correction; *p < 0.05

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