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Table 3 Multidrug resistance patterns of gram negative bacteria isolated from selected rivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia June, 2017

From: High level of drug resistance by gram-negative bacteria from selected sewage polluted urban rivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Bacterial isolate Number of antimicrobials resisted no (%)
R0 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 Total MDR
E. coli (N = 23) 1 (4) 1 (4) 3 (13) 2 (9) 3 (13) 6 (26) 6 (26) 1 (4) 23 (100) 18 (78)
K. pneumoniae (N = 18) 1 (6) 7 (39) 3 (17) 2 (11) 1 (6) 3 (17) 1 (6) 0 (0) 18 (100) 7 (39)
K. oxytoca (N = 17) 0 (0) 7 (41) 3 (18) 3 (18) 2 (12) 1 (6) 0 (0) 1 (6) 17 (100) 7 (41)
C. freundi (N = 10) 0 (0) 2 (20) 2 (20) 1 (10) 4 (40) 1 (10) 0 (0) 0 (0) 10 (100) 6 (60)
P. alcalifaciens (N = 10) 0 (0) 1 (10) 0 (0) 2 (20) 2 (20) 5 (50) 0 (0) 0 (0) 10 (100) 9 (90)
P. rettgeri (N = 8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (13) 4 (50) 2 (25) 0 (0) 1 (13) 8 (100) 8 (100)
M. morganii (N = 4) 0 (0) 1 (25) 0 (0) 2 (50) 1 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (100) 3 (75)
Total 2 (2) 19 (21) 11 (12) 12 (13) 15 (17) 18 (20) 7 (8) 3 (3) 90 (100) 58 (64)
  1. R0 no resistance for any class of antimicrobial, R1 resistance for one class of antimicrobials, R2 resistance for two class of antimicrobial, R3 resistance for three class of antimicrobials, R4 resistance for four class of antimicrobials, R5 resistance for five class of antimicrobials, R6 resistance for six class of antimicrobials, R7 resistance for seven class of antimicrobials