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Table 1 Review of East Africa based carbapenem resistance studies

From: A systematic review: the current status of carbapenem resistance in East Africa

Location Number of isolates CR isolates CR prevalence (%) Carbapenemase genes Organism Period Methods used Refs
Kenya 416 57 13.7 VIM-2 P. aeruginosa Jan 2006–Jun 2007 PCR, PFGE and sequencing [23]
Kenya > 100 7 NDM-1 K. pneumoniae 2007–2009 PCR, PFGE and sequencing [24]
Kenya 16 NDM-1 A. baumannii Jan 2009–Aug 2010 PCR, PFGE, Sequencing and MBL Etest strips [25]
Kenya 190 44 23.2 K. pneumoniae 2002–2013 Disk diffusion [26]
Kenya 195 25 12.8 NDM-1 like K. pneumoniae 1994–2017 WGS [27]
Kenya 17/219 1/219 or 1/17 0.5/5.9 K. pneumoniae 2010 Disk diffusion [28]
Kenya 42 3 7 E. coli Disk diffusion [29]
Uganda 196 44 22.4 OXA-48, IMP, KPC and NDM-1 K. pneumoniae. E. coli, Enterobacter spp, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella oxytoca and Pantoea agglomerans Jan 2013–Mar 2014 PCR. Disk diffusion and Modified Hodge test [30]
Uganda 658 68 10.3 VIM and OXA-48 E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella spp, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter sakazaki and Stenotrophomonas spp Sept 2013–Jun 2014 PCR and disk diffusion [31]
Uganda 869 (clinical) 10 1.2 (10/869)
24 (10/42)
IMP-like, VIM-like, SPM-like and NDM-1-like P. aeruginosa (42/658 = 5%) Feb 2007–Sep 2009 PCR
Phoenix Automated
Microbiology System
[32]
9 1.1 (9/869)
31 (9/29)
OXA-23,24, 58 like and VIM-like A. baumannii (29/658 = 3%)
80 (environmental) 15 18.8 (15/80)
33 (15/46)
IMP-like, VIM-like, SPM-like and NDM-1-like P. aeruginosa 57.5% (46/80)
6 7.5 (6/80)
55 (6/11)
OXA-23,24, 58 like and VIM-like A. baumannii 14% (11/80)
Uganda 736 (clinical) 3 0.41 (3/736)
33 (3/9)
P. aeruginosa (9/736 = 1.2%) Sept 2012–Oct 2013 Rep-PCR and disk diffusion [33]
1 0.14 (1/736)
14 (1/7)
A. baumannii (7/736 = 0.95%)
100 (environmental) 7 7 (7/100)
21 (7/33)
P. aeruginosa (33/100 = 33%)
6 6 (6/100)
46 (6/13)
A. baumannii (13/100 = 13%)
Tanzania 90 8 8.9 VIM-2 P. aeruginosa May 2010–Jul 2011 Sequencing, PGFE and Disc diffusing [34]
Tanzania 227 80 35 VIM-, IMP-, NDM-KPC, OXA48 K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. oxytoca A. baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia marcescens and Salmonella spp 2007–2012 PCR and disk diffusion [35]
Rwanda 55/154 5 in 154 or 5/55 2.9/8 E. coli Jul–Dec 2013 Disk diffusion [36]
Ethiopia 33 4 12.1 K. pneumoniae and Morganella morgani Jan–Mar 2014 Disc diffusion and
Modified Hodge test
[37]
Ethiopia 267 5 1.87 K. pneumoniae
E. coli
Dec 2012   [38]
DRC 104/643 1 in 643 or 1/104 0.2/0.96 Enterobacter spp. Sept 2012–Aug 2013 Disk diffusion [39]