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Table 2 Empirical results on c-section choices

From: Public and social environment changes and caesarean section delivery choice in Japan

Sample Hospital Clinic
Dependent variable C-section deliveries C-section ratio C-section deliveries C-section ratio
Medical facility characteristics
 Public facility 1.562b 1.759b 0.053c 0.034 − 0.346 − 0.075 − 0.028 − 0.027b
(0.739) (0.781) (0.028) (0.026) (0.367) (0.362) (0.017) (0.014)
 Number of physicians 0.009 0.005 0.000 0.000 0.500a 0.558a 0.006a 0.009a
(0.006) (0.006) (0.000) (0.000) (0.067) (0.072) (0.002) (0.003)
 Number of sickbeds 0.002 0.002 0.000c 0.000 0.103a 0.091a 0.005a 0.005a
(0.004) (0.005) (0.000) (0.000) (0.010) (0.011) (0.001) (0.001)
 Opening outside hours on weekdays 0.512 0.660 0.005 0.008 0.107 0.250 − 0.001 0.002
(0.333) (0.506) (0.011) (0.010) (0.148) (0.172) (0.005) (0.006)
 Opening on holidays 0.091 0.412 − 0.007 0.006 1.426a 1.364a 0.075a 0.072a
(0.188) (0.337) (0.006) (0.008) (0.119) (0.145) (0.006) (0.007)
Aggregated variables
 Women’s average age for first marriage 0.334b − 0.030 − 0.028a − 0.026b 0.144b − 0.249 − 0.002 − 0.013
(0.125) (0.467) (0.006) (0.012) (0.071) (0.172) (0.005) (0.009)
 Child mortality rate − 0.002 0.006 0.010 0.000 0.078 0.034 0.002 − 0.003
(0.240) (0.226) (0.008) (0.005) (0.098) (0.087) (0.005) (0.005)
 Obstetricians and gynecologists density − 0.068c − 0.063 0.000 0.001 − 0.019c − 0.006 0.000 0.001
(0.039) (0.046) (0.001) (0.001) (0.012) (0.012) (0.001) (0.001)
 The youth population 0.007a 0.010a 0.000 0.000b 0.004a 0.005a 0.000a 0.000a
(0.002) (0.002) (0.000) (0.000) (0.001) (0.001) (0.000) (0.000)
 The amount of lump-sum birth allowance 0.034 0.099c 0.002b 0.002 0.006 0.066a 0.000 0.001
(0.012) (0.055) (0.001) (0.002) (0.009) (0.023) (0.001) (0.001)
 Prefectural real GDP 1.865a 1.158b 0.045c 0.029b 0.080 − 0.178 0.001 0.001
(0.499) (0.476) (0.026) (0.014) (0.270) (0.216) (0.012) (0.017)
 The number of yearly medical malpractice lawsuits   0.002   0.000c   0.002a   0.000c
  (0.001)   (0.000)   (0.001)   (0.000)
Constant − 15.752a − 9.803 0.549a 0.407 − 6.905a 0.029 − 0.101 0.114
(3.868) (10.691) (0.152) (0.255) (2.278) (3.656) (0.120) (0.178)
Number of observations 9874 8156 9874 8156 13,631 11,311 13,631 11,311
Number of facilities 1958 1882 1958 1882 2909 2814 2909 2814
R-squared (overall) 0.094 0.096 0.059 0.072 0.038 0.049 0.008 0.015
  1. a, b, cRepresent statistical significance at the 1, 5, and 10 percent levels, respectively. Clustering robust standard errors allowing for correlated residuals within prefectures are in parentheses