Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Values (mean ± SD) of oral and nasal hind call variables and repeated measures ANOVA results for comparison the mean values between 2011 and 2012 years separately for oral and nasal calls

From: Between-year vocal aging in female red deer (Cervus elaphus)

Acoustic variable Nasal calls (n = 13 hinds) Oral calls (n = 7 hinds)
2011 2012 ANOVA 2011 2012 ANOVA
duration (s) 0.84 ± 0.29 0.81 ± 0.28 F1,12 =  0.16; p  = 0.69 0.68 ± 0.21 0.68 ± 0.22 F1,6 =  0.03; p  = 0.88
f0beg (Hz) 139 ± 23 127 ± 30 F 1,12  =   8.41; p   =   0.013 141 ± 28 129 ± 16 F1,6 =  2.08; p  = 0.20
f0max (Hz) 180 ± 31 173 ± 30 F 1,12  =  5.21; p   =  0.04 184 ± 27 178 ± 34 F1,6 =  0.53; p  = 0.49
f0end (Hz) 88 ± 14 81 ± 21 F1,12 = 3.16; p  = 0.10 88 ± 7 83 ± 7 F 1,6  =  7.14; p   =  0.037
df0 (Hz) 91 ± 26 78 ± 24 F 1,12  =  15.82; p   = 0.002 96 ± 26 82 ± 31 F1,6 =  2.12; p  = 0.20
fpeak (Hz) 1076 ± 515 808 ± 601 F1,12 =  4.16; p  = 0.06 1404 ± 308 1063 ± 308 F1,6 =  3.75; p  = 0.10
q25 (Hz) 681 ± 186 667 ± 227 F1,12 =  0.07; p  = 0.80 903 ± 218 887 ± 268 F1,6 =  0.03; p  = 0.88
q50 (Hz) 1571 ± 261 1627 ± 282 F1,12 =  0.88; p  = 0.37 1699 ± 123 1667 ± 261 F1,6 =  0.11; p  = 0.76
q75 (Hz) 2526 ± 171 2739 ± 318 F1,12 =  4.09; p  = 0.07 2532 ± 180 2616 ± 209 F1,6 =  1.21; p  = 0.31
  1. Designations: duration—call duration; f0beg—the fundamental frequency at the onset of a call; f0max—the maximum fundamental frequency of a call; f0end—the fundamental frequency at the end of a call; df0—the depth of frequency modulation, calculated as the difference between f0max and f0min; fpeak—the frequency of maximum amplitude within a call; q25, q50, q75—the lower, medium and upper quartiles of a call. Significant differences are highlighted in underlined